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History: E.C.Ireland

What is a monastery? A monastery is a closed, religious community usually made up of monks
The celts
What religion were the celts? They were pagan.
A pagan is someone who worships various gods, often with a focus on nature or the earth
Druids were spiritual, pagan figures similar to priests in Pre-Christian Celtic Ireland.
They were farmers and warriors who had come from Central Europe and their beliefs were pagan.
When did Christianity/ the Roman Empire spread as far as England? Around the 3rd century AD
It was Palladius and he came to Ireland in AD 431
Who was st Patrick? St Patrick was brought as a slave from wales to Ireland when he was 16 years old. After 6 years in Ireland he escaped to Britain, but then came back as a bishop to spread Christianity to Ireland. He worked in Ireland, converting people from AD 432 -AD 461
St Enda in around AD 500
Inis Mór, is found in the Aran Islands
What is a monk? Monks are men who dedicate themselves to a religious order and to life in a monastery.
Strict, simple lives
What type of lives did monks live?
Is a book written by hand
St Patrick’s confessio is his book, where he documented his founding of churches and missions
What is St Patrick’s confessio?
He claimed he ‘captised thousands’ and ‘Ordained clerics everywhere’
What designs were common on art and why? Celtic symbols and designs were, this showed the mixing of Christianity and Celtic culture.
Lots of pagan festivals overtime absorbed into Christianity. Samhain (pagan) became Hallowe’en.
Scribe, stonemason, farmer and metalworker.
How did monks survive? They were Self sufficient.
Self sufficient means to produce all your own food.
The land of Saints and scholars
Nearby towns
Scribes worked in the scriptorium, where they copied manuscripts
Farmers worked in the fields, where they did ploughing, milking, harvesting and grinding corn
Teaching poetry, literature, arts and gospel.
They made detailed, objects made out of metal, usually made with silver and decorated with gold
Small, stone huts shaped like beehives.
Monks slept in beehive huts. In smaller monasteries like Sceilg Mhicil Co. Kerry (steep rocky island with a stone church)
The isolation meant they could focus more on God and their work
The abbot
Eat, usually in silence
What was the oratory for? Mass and Praying, 6-8 times a day
What was a round tower? A bell tower and a safe place if under attack for both people and treasure. The door and small windows were high up, only reachable by a ladder.
They contained the gospels and psalms
They were written in Latin, by the use of parchment (sheep and calf skin) and quills
Cathach of St. Columba - 6th century (oldest) Book of kells (AD 800) Book of Durrow (AD650- 700 )
What did monks decorate silver with Gold and amber and enamel and coloured glass
Ardagh chalice- 8th century Derrynaflan Chalice- 9th century
A high stone cross is a freestanding stone cross, usually with elaborate carvings showing scenes from the bible
Cross of the scriptures - Clonmacnoise, Co. Offaly (late 10th century) Muiredachs cross -Monasterboice, Co. Louth (mid 9th to 10th century)
Modern day Scandinavia, which is Denmark, Norway and Sweden
They were farmers and fishermen with superb shipbuilding and navigation skills.
Voyage to many countries- including Ireland
They would sail away from their land and let a raven fly to the nearest land and they would follow it.
They were capable of crossing stormy seas, but also able to sail up a river with how shallow the boats were.
The danish harbour of roskilde, and they used carbon 14 dating and dendrochronology to find the wood originated from Glendalough, felled in AD 1042.
AD 795
Camps by the water used as a base for raids
Dublin, Wexford, limerick and Waterford
Who were the people who lived in Ireland prior to Christianity?
What is a pagan?
What were druids?
Who were the celts?
What was the first recorded source of Christianity in Ireland?
Who founded the first monastery in Ireland and when?
What was the name of the first monastery?
What did St, Patrick’s Confessio say
What happened to paganism and Christianity?
What were jobs monks could have to create art (artefacts now)?
What does self sufficient mean?
What was Ireland called after the popularity of Christianity?
What did big monasteries have contact with?
Where did scribes work?
Where did farmers work?
What did monastries become well known for because they were centres of learning?
What did metalworkers/ craftsmen create?
What were beehive huts?
What were the purpose of beehive huts? Give an example.
Why were monastries often isolated?
Who was the head of the monastery?
What did the monks do in the refectory?
What was the circular wall for?
What did manuscripts contain?
What were the manuscripts written in, and with what material?
Examples of manuscripts.
Examples of metalwork?
What is a high stone cross?
High stone cross examples?
Where did the vikings come from?
Who were the vikings?
What did their navigation skills allow them to do?
How would they find land?
What were vikings boats?
What were longships?
Example of a longship.
When were the first recorded Viking raids?
What were longphorts?
Name places that used to be longphorts?
Why did vikings attack monasteries? They were isolated places with treasure and no warriors to defend it. The could also take cattle, food and captives and sell them as slaves.
Who was also attacking monasteries during this time? The Native Irish
Viking houses? Rectangular, with thatched roofs, wattle and daub walls and it had a hearth in the middle. Toilet and rubbish pits and fences.
What was the golden age of irish monasteries? Europe was going through the dark ages, and monasteries were being constantly attacked, so some Irish monks travelled to Europe to set up monasteries and spread Christianity.
What did art like high crosses do for the public? Give an example of one. Since most were illiterate, the pictures showed bible scenes and taught people. Cross of the Scriptures in Clonmacnoise, co. Offaly
Give an example of a Viking settlement in Ireland that was found/excavated. Wood Quay Dublin. Artefacts like glass beads, brooches, and necklaces were found.
Created by: KMcBride007
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