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Civil War and Recon.

This stack contains terms and definitions about the American Civil War and Recon

TermDefinition
Crittenden Compromise 6 constitutional amendments and a series of resolutions proposed by John Crittenden
Robert E. Lee a Confederate General and arguably the best military commander of the day. He achieved great success at Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville.
Ulysses S. Grant Most praised Union General during the American Civil War. (later he became President) He had victories at Shiloh and Vicksburg.
Battle of Gettysburg A three-day battle that was the biggest and costliest battle ever fought in North America. (Union victory).
Battle of Bull Run A battle near Manassas, Virginia where around 60,000 troops assembled, each sending 18,000 to the fray. (Confederate victory).
Gettysburg Address A two-minute speech by Abraham Lincoln where he claimed the Union soldiers who had died at Gettysburg had died not only to preserve the Union, but also to guarantee freedom and equality for all.
Army of the West led by Grant and Operated in Kentucky, Tennessee, and the Mississippi River Valley. The goal was to gain control of the major rivers in the west, especially the Mississippi.
Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected, and this was a turning point for the United States.
General McClellan General in chief of the army, responsible for overall control of Union land forces. He was in direct command of the Army of the Potomac. Later fired because Lincoln did not think he would ever win the war.
Election of 1864 Abraham Lincoln reelected despite many oppositions. Union victories in 1864 changed everything, and Lincoln won all but three states.
Emancipation Proclamation A document signed by Abraham Lincoln that declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
Border States Slave states loyal to the Union (Kentucky, Missouri, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware).
Fredericksburg Burnside (Commander of the Army of the Potomac) made efforts to push into Virginia, which ended as a failure. Burnside's failure to get the Union a victory caused Lincoln to fire him.
Fort Sumter The fort in the South's most important Atlantic port. The Confederacy attacked this fort which signaled that the war had come.
Secession The withdrawal from the Union. (South Carolina being the first to secede). 11 states overall seceded.
Copperheads Northern Democrats that railed against Lincoln and the war.
Sherman's March to the Sea General William T. Sherman led around 60,000 soldiers on a 285- mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. During the march, the Union army destroyed everything in its path.
Radical Republicans Wanted to remake the South and punish the rebels. Insisted on harsh terms for the confederacy and protection for former slaves.
Thirteenth Amendment The amendment that abolished slavery. The first amendment added to the Constitution since 1804.
Freedmen's Bureau It delivered food to blacks and whites in the South. It helped freed people gain labor contracts, helped reunite families of freedmen, and devoted much energy to education.
Black Codes Were designed to maintain the social and economic structure of racial slavery in the absence of slavery itself. The laws codified white supremacy by restricting the civic participation of freed slaves.
Fifteenth Amendment It gave African American men the right to vote. (citizens can not be denied or abridged on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude).
Sharecropping A crop-lien system that worked to the advantage of landowners. It ensured that freed people could not attain independent livelihoods.
Carpetbaggers A term of abuse applied to southerners accused of having come to the South to acquire wealth through political power at the expense of southerners.
Scalawags Southern whites who supported Reconstruction. They generated great hostility as traitors to the South. They became targets of the Klan and similar groups.
Force Acts Designed to outlaw intimidation at the polls and to give the federal government the power to prosecute crimes against freed people in federal rather than state courts.
Fourteenth Amendment Granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the U.S. Equal protection under both the state and federal law.
Created by: 20KSR434