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3.11 Fed & St Court

Civics Florida Standard SS.7.C.3.11 Federal & State Court

appeal a request, made after a trial, asking a higher court to decide whether that trial was conducted properly
appellate court any court that has the power to hear appeals from lower courts
bailiff court official who keeps order in the court, calls witnesses, is in charge of and makes sure no one tries to influence the jury
case a matter that goes before a judge or court of law
Chief Justice the head justice, the Chief Justice is “first among equals”
circuit courts a court for a defined region of a state (usually including several counties) that has specific divisions and hears cases within those divisions (e.g., family court, criminal court)
civil case a case involving the rights of citizens
county courts a court that hears both civil and criminal cases in one specific county
court a place where justice is administered
court clerk court officer responsible for giving the oath to jurors and witnesses, is also responsible for court paperwork and physical evidence
court reporter court officer who records, word for word, everything that is said as part of the trial
criminal case a case involving someone who is accused of committing an illegal activity
cross- examination the follow-up questioning of a witness by the side that did not call the witness to the stand
defendant the person who answers the legal action of a plaintiff/prosecutor
direct examination the first questioning of a witness by the side that called the witness to the stand
District Court of Appeals an appellate court in the federal system
federalism a system of government in which power is divided and shared between national, state, and local government
Florida Circuit Courts the courts that have general jurisdiction over matters not covered by the county courts
Florida County Courts the courts where most non-jury trials occur; they are referred to as “the people’s courts” because they handle minor disagreements between citizens and minor criminal offenses
Florida Supreme Court the highest court in Florida
judge a public official authorized to decide questions brought before a court
judicial branch the branch of government that interprets the laws made by the legislative branch
judicial review the power of the U.S. courts to examine the laws or actions of the legislative and executive branches of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the U.S. Constitution
jurisdiction the right and power for courts to interpret and apply the law
juror a member of a jury
jury a group of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court of law
justice the title given to judges of the U.S. Supreme Court and Florida Supreme Court
original jurisdiction the power of a court to be the first to hear a case on a specific topic
plaintiff/prosecutor the person who brings legal action against another person
U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals the courts where parties who are dissatisfied with the judgment of a U.S. District court may take their case
U.S. District Courts the courts where most federal cases begin, the U.S. District Courts are courts of original jurisdiction and hear civil and criminal cases
U.S. Supreme Court the highest court of the United States; it sits at the top of the federal court system
trial court the local, state, or federal court that is the first to hear a civil or criminal case; involves a hearing and decision with a single judge, with or without a jury
verdict a judgment
voir dire the process of questioning potential member of a jury for a trial
writ of certiorari the procedure to see if the U.S. Supreme Court will hear a case