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Criminology In Class Review Final Questions

Difference between organizational and occupational white collar crime? Organizational is committed by the company for the company. Occupational is committed against the company by an employee for their own personal gain.
Name of legendary con artist whose name had become an informal term for a pyramid scheme? Charles Ponzi
What type of crime is not committed by corporations? fraud, embezzlement, environmental crime, or sale of unsafe products? Embezzlement - committed by employees and corporation is the victim.
Andy Fastow cooked Enron's books to show balanced budgets and also skimmed profits from the company. What did Andy Fastow commit? Corporate and occupational crime
True or False? Corporate crimes, when detected by law enforcement and put to trial, usually result in prison time for the perpetrators, usually higher level executives within the company. False
Theft from an employer of property rather than money by an individual who has reached a position of financial trust? pilferage
Position of Ken Lay within Enron? Founder and Chairman of the Board
Position of Jeff Skilling within Enron? President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
Position of Andy Fastow within Enron? Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
Individuals who inform on wrongdoing within their organization? whistleblowers
How is industry variation a contributing factor to corporate crime? Competition within an industry encourages creative law-breaking and lack of competition within an industry can enable price manipulation.
Three components of Cressey's Embezzlement Triangle? Incentive/need, opportunity, and rationalizations
According to Cloward and Yeager, what % of their sample of 582 of the largest companies had convictions of corporate crime? 62%
Define terrorism in simple terms? Unlawful acts of violence committed to advance a political objective.
Two individuals that J Edgar Hoover gathered or manufactured blackmail information about in the FBI's counterintelligence program COINTELPRO? Dr. Martin Luther King Jr, John F Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, Eleanor Roosevelt
According to Ted Gurr, what type of terrorism occurs when a private organization commits acts of terror against their government? Insurgent terrorism - groups or citizens vs. their government (timothy McVeigh Oklahoma CIty bombing)
Clandestine theft of information? espionage
What is not an example of violence committed against the state? Suffragettes arson, weathermen's days of rage, Kent State Massacre, Watts Riots The Kent State Massacre
True or False? Psychopathic assassins suffer . from distorted perceptions of reality, such as paranoia or delusion. False - this is insane assassins. Psychopathic assassins lack empathy.
Misconception that social justice has historically been achieved through non-violent means? Myth of Peaceful Progress
The Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist organizations engage in what kind of terrorism? Vigilante terrorism - to defend the status quo or return to the status quo of an earlier time period.
What are political crimes committed by the state? Jailing of political opponents and those declared enemies of state, torture of political prisoners, violent suppression of non-violent protests against the state, government spying on private citizens without legal warrant.
Why is genocide often not prosecuted? National governments can deny their actions or make them legal. International councils need a lot of evidence to intervene.
True or False? The Watergate Scandal refers to a few rogue employees of Nixon's administration charged with burglary and illegal surveillance of the democratic party headquarters. False -Was not just a few rogue employees, went all the way up to Nixon's chief of staff. the illegal surveillance was only part of their abuse of power to gather info and sabotage careers of political opponents. Nixon also ordered the cover up himself.
Define Criminology? study of the making and breaking of laws. How do we make laws and how do we predict who will break laws.
Define Criminal justice? Study of the process of the criminal justice system.
Part I index offenses (violent) in hierarchy order? Homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault
Part I index offenses (property) in hierarchy order? burglary, motor vehicle theft, larceny theft, arson
Most common violent and property offenses? simple assault; larceny theft
What and how does the UCR collect data? FBI and police stations send out their official records. Collects info on reported crime. Best way to measure across time or areas.
What and how does the NCVS collect data? Survey of people in households. Asks about their victimizations within the last 6 months. Tries to get at the dark figure of crime. Asks about specific details. Subject to people remembering incorrectly. Don't collect on arson or homicide.
What and how does qualitative data collect data? Researcher inserts themselves into the research. Best way to research organized crime. Want to know intent or why they commit the crimes they do. Very time consuming and dangerous and a small sample.
Difference between group conflict and class conflict model of law? group conflict says that their are other sources of power besides money. One group (religion, sex, etc.) that attains the most power becomes a reflection of the law. Class conflict is the same thing but based on the higher class . having the power.
Best way to measure patterns of crime over time? triangulation, use many crime reports to measure. Different measures that tell the same story, not a consistency. UCR is a . count, NCVS is an estimate.
5 correlates of crime? Race/Ethnicity, age, Sex/gender, socioeconomic status. location
Most crime is intraracial or interracial? intraracial (within same race)
Cost of WCC? More than $300 billion according to FBI
Distinguishing characteristics of occupational criminals? middle aged men with respectable lives and no criminal record.
reasons for embezzlement and pilferage? Are faced with a non-shareable financial issue. Rationalize it as borrowing. Say company can afford it or the company owes you.
Examples of corporate crime? multinational bribery, sale of unsafe products, environmental crime, corporate fraud
Difference between structure of an organization and culture of an organization? Structure: techniques, rule book for a company. EX: diffusion fo responsibility, lack fo checks and balances, and hiring and firing practices. organization: definitions, mission statement. Everyone else does it, what you learn and how its passed down.
How did the American Mafia begin? Came to America during Reconstruction Era for opportunities but there were none because of the chaos. Competiting races and ethnicities led to violence. Prohibition created a market fo organized crime.
Organized crime? any group who primary activity involves violating laws to seek illegal profits and power. use violence
La Cosa Nostra model? one major crime syndicate that controls everything else. Nationwide.
Enterprise-Power Model? One group supplies the demand, large division of labor and other uses violence to control those enterprises, unclear division of labor.
Patron-Client Model? Organized as local entities, about cooperation not violence. Supply local demand. Ni rigid formal structure but focuses on La Cosa Nostra model.
Pattern of organized crime groups? start with tactical crimes to earn money, then go into illegitimate business( black markets) and usually top there. Some move into legitimate business then government.
What type of regimes does global organized crime thrive in? corrupt dictatorships and liberal democracies
Examples of global organized crime groups? Russian Mafia, Japanese Yakuza, Chinese Triads
Common endeavors of global organized crime groups? money laundering, human trafficking, migrant smuggling, and .drug trafficking
factors that lead to people being human trafficked? economic dislocation, social dislocation, family collapse, forced migration
Costs of organized crime? United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) - $870 billion FBI - $1 trillion
Political crime? Crime committed for ideological reasons
Characteristics of political criminals? motivations, either political party, violent/nonviolent, part of a group/individual. Basically uncharacteristic
Transnational terrorism? Occurs when non-indigenous terrorists cross national borders (9/11)
State Terrorism? Government acts to repress citizenry (human rights violations)
Political assassin? commits acts selflessly for political reasons
Egocentric assassin? people with aggressive egocentric need for acceptance, recognition, and status
Atypical assassin? those who defy classification
Examples of publci roder crimes? gambling, prostitutuion, alcohol and drug abuse,
Broken Windows Theory? say police should not ignore small disturbances because they usually lead to bigger crimes.
Social control on public order crimes? Ban or tax the items. Usually leads to black market for items.



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