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Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian Soc. "Deviance" Test Flashcards 2019

What does the term "deviance" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs".
Complete the following sentence: "Deviance is _______________________ due to changing social norms and people's ideas about what is 'normal'." Subjective
What does the term "crime" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/ or other negative sanctions".
What does the term "juvenile delinquency" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people".
What does the term "social control" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance".
What do "criminologists" study? These social scientists study the criminal justice system including the police, courts, and prisons.
What two (2) things did Emile Durkheim state related to the "roots of deviance"? He stated that deviance was rooted in two things: 1.) societal factors such as rapid social change, and; 2.) lack of integration among people.
What three (3) things to modern Functionalist Theorists say related to the universality of deviance? 1.) Deviance clarifies rules; 2.) Deviance unites groups; 3.) Deviance promotes social change.
Which sociologist developed "Strain Theory"? Sociologist Robert Merton developed this theory.
What does "Strain Theory" state? This theory states that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals".
List the four (4) types of adaptation to deviance as they were classified by Robert Merton. 1.) Innovation; 2.) Ritualism; 3.) Retreatism; 4.) Rebellion.
What does the term "illegitimate opportunity structures" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels".
What do Conflict Theorists state related to deviant behavior and the "elite" in society? This group of theorists states that lifestyles that are considered "deviant" by political and economic elites are often defined as "illegal".
What do Conflict Theorists state related to why norms and laws are established? This group of theorists states that "norms and laws are established for the benefit of those in power and do not reflect any absolute standard of right and wrong".
What do Marxian Theorists state related to deviance? This group of theorists states that "people with economic and political power define as criminal any behavior that threatens their own interests".
What does the "liberal feminist approach" state related to the reasons why women engage in deviant behavior/ commit crimes? This approach states that "women's deviance and crime are a rational response to the gender discrimination that women experience in families and the workplace".
What does the "radical feminist approach" state related to the reasons why women engage in deviant behavior/ commit crimes? This approach states that the cause of women's crime originates from patriarchy (male domination over women).
What does the "Marxist feminist approach" state related to the reasons why women engage in deviant behavior/ commit crimes? This approach states that "because most females have relatively low-wage jobs (if any) and few economic resources, crimes such as shoplifting become a means to earn money and results in a form of female sexual slavery".
What does the "differential association theory" of deviance state? This theory states that "people have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with individuals who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity".
What does criminologist Ronald Akers' "differential reinforcement theory" state? This theory states that "both deviant behavior and conventional behavior are learned through the same social processes".
What does the "rational choice theory" of deviance state? This theory states that "deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of non-conventional or criminal behavior and determines that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved in such actions".
What does Travis Hirschi's "social bond theory" state? This theory states that "the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person's ties to society are weakened or broken".
According to Travis Hirschi, what are the four (4) elements of "social bonding"? 1.) Attachment to other people; 2.) Commitment to conformity; 3.) Involvement in conventional activities; 4.) Belief in the legitimacy of conventional values and norms.
What does the "labeling theory" of deviance state? This theory states that "deviance is a socially constructed process in which social control agencies designate certain people as deviants, and they, in return, come to accept the label placed upon them and begin to act accordingly".
What is the difference between "primary" and "secondary" deviance? "Primary deviance" refers to the initial (i.e. first) act of rule breaking, while "secondary deviance" is what happens after a person is labeled 'deviant' and accept this new identity and continue the deviant behavior".
What does the term "tertiary deviance" mean/ refer to? This term refers to situations in which people who have been labeled as "deviant" seek to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as nondeviant.
What does the term "victimless crime" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "crimes that involve a willing exchange of illegal goods or services among adults".
What is "white collar (occupational) crime"? These are crimes that are committed by people " . . .in the course of their employment or financial affairs".
What are "corporate crimes"? These are crimes committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with its support.
What does the term "political crimes" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "ilegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders who want to make a political statement".
What functions do local police serve? Community relations, resolving family conflicts, and helping people during emergencies.
What factor is the most significant out of all factors associated with crime? Age is the most significant factor.
About how many criminal cases are tried in court? About 10% are tried in court due to plea bargaining taking place instead of a trial.
What demographic has the highest criminal victimization rate? Young men of color ages 12 - 24.
What are the four (4) types of "political deviance"? 1.) Secrecy & deception; 2.) Abuse of power; 3.) Prosecution of individuals because of their political activities; 4.) Official violence (ex: police brutality)
What are the four (4) goals of punishment? 1.) Retribution; 2.) General deterrence; 3.) Incapacitation; 4.) Rehabilitation.
What does the term "punishment" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed".
Created by: sticklerpjpII



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