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lecture terms 7-10

TermDefinition
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) places Boston under marshall law, ports are shut down by the British Navy and was used to punished citizens of Boston, as well take away New England's political voice.
First Continental Congress response to the intolerable acts, never mentioned independence and wanted to show England that they were united politically in order to protest, wrote petitions representing everyone, used non-importation, created the regulators (neighborhood watch)
Minutemen militia that were suppose to be ready in less than a minute to fight
Joseph Warren a spy that had put together a complex espionage, head of committee of public safety, and told Paul Revere to set the Lexington alarm
Thomas Gage was in charge of enforcing marshall law in Boston, had been ordered to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock, disarm citizens, and enforce the laws without killing anyone
John Hancock Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Dec. of Indep.
Paul Revere American silversmith, midnight rider, who became a hero after his famous ride to warn of the Regulars advance on Lexington, but got caught and did not make it Concord. One of the witnesses of the battle of Lexington
Samuel Prescott a young volunteer that went to Concord to warn the people to hid the gun power
Battle of Lexington and Concord "shot heard around the world", the first major battle of the American Revolution, neither side claimed the first shot. Eight americans died and the rest of the militia ran directly towards Concord, while the entire colony was ringing. soldiers went around
2nd Continental Congress response to the battle of Lexington and Concord, they weren't seeking independence and wanted to stay in the British empire by passing the Olive Branch Petition, could not agree on who would be in charge of the Standing Army and almost fell apart
William Howe English general who commanded the English forces at bunker hill
John Burgoyne British general defeated by American forces at battle of Saratoga in1777
Battle of Saratoga turning point of revolution b/c after colonist won this major victory, the French decided to support US w/ money, ship, and military
treaty of alliance defensive alliance between France and US, formed in the midst of American revolution war which promised military support in case of attack by British forces
George Washington Commander of the Continental Army
Olive Branch Petition final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British gov. if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation w/o representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which passed the American Prohibitory
Thomas Piane a radical that was an outspoken atheist who wrote "Common Sense" where he destroys the reputation of George III along with his monarchy
Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) statement issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
Articles of Confederation The first governing document of the confederated states drafted in 1777 that has one branch, which made congress was very weak and gave all the power to the states
Charles Cornwallis Commanding general of the British forces that were defeated at Yorktown in 1781, ending the American Revolution.
Francis Marion Nicknamed the Swamp Fox for his swift hit-and-run raids against British forces in the Carolinas.
Nathaniel Greene Quaker-raised American general who employed tactics of fighting and then drawing back to recover, then attacking again. Defeated Cornwallis by thus "fighting Quaker".
Daniel Morgan Continental Colonel of regular army and some militia. Master of guerilla warfare. Given credit for winning the Battle of Cowpens.
Guilford Courthouse The major battle in North Carolina that is won by the British, but Cornwallis withdraws to Virginia and ultimately to Yorktown because of his losses
Battle of Yorktown Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris John Jay, John Adams andFranklin created this treaty. Declares America as a free nation, removes all troops from America, the British will remove the Quebec Act, they will consider to trade with them, and they are allowed to fish off the coast of Canada.
Who drafted the Declaration of Independence? John adams, Ben Franklin(edited), Linvingston, Sherman, and Thomas Jefferson (author)
Northwest Ordinance Enacted in 1787, it established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states. We got Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee
Newbourgh Conspiracy a military coo in New York that tried to overturn the U.S government but didn't happen because George Washington gave up his position as commander and chief and giving a speech that reminded the troops what they suffered to get here.
Shay's Rebellion Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government and lead to the Constitutional Convention.
James Madison "Father of the U.S Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.
Virginia Plan Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which there are three branches, bicameral congress that can tax, create currency, and appoint people in the other branches ,creating a strong central government
Federalist supporters of the Constitution, believe in a loose interpretation of the Constitution, capitalist, from north, restrictions of democracy, pro-english
Anti-Ferderalists People who opposed the Constitution; worried it didn't protect the people's rights, and had strong central government
Great Compromise Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in (congress) the Senate of the legislature and representation based on population in the house of representative
U.S. Constitution The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
Electoral College A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
Judiciary Act of 1789 A law passed by the first Congress to establish the federal court system.
Bill of Rights first 10 amendments to constitution made to protect citizens from gov.
Constitutional Convention The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
3/5 Compromise the decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress
Alexander Hamilton 1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Compromise of 1790 created a brand new capital that would be located on the Potomac River (South) and would give us Hamilton's fiscal policy (government would assume the state war debts)
Whiskey Rebellion Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey (first tax).
Jeffersonian Republicans nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jefferson and stemming from the anti-federalists, today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and middle class. weak central govt., and strong states's rights.
Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State, opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional, 3rd president
Proclamation of Neutrality issued by Washington declaring the US a neutral nation between Britain and france
Jay's Treaty signed by US and Britain, Britain stated to improve trade relations, cut trade between France and abide by the rule of 1756 and agree to trade w/ Great Britain
Treaty of Greenville This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio and the west
Pickney's Treaty 1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi River and was a direct response to Jay's Treaty
Citizen Genet Affair A French representative who attempted to contradict the Neutrality Proclamation by organizing armies to attack British and Spanish territories. Washington ejected him from the country when he became dangerous to his control over the people.
Farewell Address Its main points included: stepping down and will retire, assuming leadership in the Western Hemisphere, developing its own trade, and not entering into permanent alliances with Europe, don't join political parties, and remain neutral.
John Adams America's first Vice-President and second President. A federalist that had to deal with the tension between the French and wanted diplomacy.
XYZ Affair meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe, renounce Proclamation of Neutrality, and a public apology form John Adams to see Talleyrand.
Naturalization Act Act that increased the time to become a US citizen from 5 to 14 years
Alien and Sedition Acts acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
1800 Revolution the us presidential election of 1800, where Thomas Jefferson won, called a revolution because Jefferson said he would be a better president than Adams
John Marshall Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by John Adams
Marbury v. Madison This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Luisiana Purchase U.S purchased Louisiana territory for $15,000, which doubled the size of our country. It was bought from Napoleon.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Created by: 1134552000087685