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Human Urinary System

A&P II - Human Urinary System

name three functions of the urinary system 1) filter/collect/eliminate nitrogenous wastes, 2) regulate blood chemistry, blood pressure, and blood volume, 3) receives 1/5 of body's blood flow
the kidneys receives roughly _____________ of the body's blood the kidneys receive approx. 1/5 of body's blood
where on the kidneys do the blood vessels and nerves enter/exit? the blood vessels and nerves enter/exit in the hilum of the kidneys
what part of a nephron is inside the renal cortex renal corpuscle (glomerulus and glomerular capsule), proximal convoluted tubule, (beginning and ending) of nephron loop, and distal convoluted tubule
there are two types of nephrons, name them 1) juxtamedullary nephron and cortical nephron
the (juxtamedullary/cortical) nephron has a longer nephron loop the juxtamedullary nephron has a longer nephron loop
name the four parts of the nephron loop in order thick descending limb, thin descending limb, thin ascending limb, thick ascending limb
name the three processes that the kidneys use to make urine glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion
where does tubular reabsorption occur (what part of the nephron) proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting ducts
where in the nephron does tubular secretion occur proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting ducts
where is the urine solute concentration adjusted the concentration of urine is adjusted in the COLLECTING DUCTS
about how much urine does the adult human produce in a day 1 to 2 Liters
what does glomerular filtrate consist of water, salts, urea, glucose
what does GFR stand for Glomerular filtration rate
how is glomerular filtration rate measured byt the amount of filtrate formed per minute by ALL nephrons in BOTH kidneys
what controls the glomerular filtration rate it is controlled by vasoconstriction/vasodilation of afferent and efferent arterioles
what is the average about of filtrate created by the glomerulous 125 mL/min or 180 L/day
what hormones regulate GFR renin-angiotensin system
how does a drop in BP affect the juxtaglomerular apparatus the juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes renin enzyme
what happens to the arteriole in the presence of Angiotensin II efferent arterioles will constrict
if efferent arterioles constrict, what happens to glomerular pressure. glomerular pressure increases when efferent arterioles constrict
what happens to the glomerular pressure in the presence of angiotensin II glomerular pressure increased in the presence of angiotensin II
activation of Angiotensin II hormone results in the release of what two other hormones antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and aldosterone
the increase of thirst sensation is in response to the activation of which hormone activation of angiotensin II hormone results in an increase in thirst
activation of angiotensin II, (increases/decreases) retention of Water angiotensin II increases retention of water
activation of angiotensin II, (increases/decreases) blood volume and blood pressure of normal GFR activation of angiotensin II increases blood volume and blood pressure
what is reabsorption the selective transfer of substances from tubular fluid in to blood
what are some items that are reabsorbed ions (such as sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride), and metabolites (glucoses, amino acids, proteins, and vitamins)
what is secretion the selective transfer of substances from blood into tubular fluid to get rid of wastes
what wastes get secreted creatinine, ammonia, and organic acids and bases, neurotransmitters, histamine, and drugs
what kind of test is used to assist in the diagnosis of may urlogic conditions urinalysis test
what kind of analysis should be performed soon after collecting a urine sample dipstick analysis
what are some physical characteristics of urine that are analyzed in a urinalysis color, pH, transparency, and odor
in normal urine what can the color look like from colorless to deep amber
what can urine discoloration depend on certain foods, bils, and hemoglobin
what is normal pH for urine 4.5 to 8.0
what can affect the pH of urine diet or infection
what is pyuria the presence of pus in urine
what could cloudy urine be the results of pus in urine due to kidney infection
what could cause urine to have a sweet smell diabetes, due to an increased number of ketones
name inorganic constituents of urine nitrites
a high level of nitrites in the urine could mean the presence of what? E. Coli (bacteria) in Urinary Tract
a high level of nitrites inc the urine could be an indicator of ________________ urinary tract infections
list 11 organic constituents that can be found on a urine dipstick test glucose, protein (albumin), ketones, RBC's, Hemoglobin, leukocytes, bilirubin, and urobilinogen
what is glycosuria excess sugar in urine
what could glycosuria be an indication of, excessive carb. intake, DM, liver/pancreatic disease
what is albuminuria urinary protein (albumin) that is in excess of 150 mg/day
what conditions could albuminuria be an indication of excessive protien intake, excessive exercise, pregnancy, kidney trauma, ingestion of heavy metals, and renal disease
what is ketonuria intermediate amount of fat metabolism in urin
what conditions could ketonuria be an indication of uncontrolled diabetes, starvation, and low carb diets
what is hematuria intact read blood cells in urin
what conditions could cause hematouria kidney trauma, calculi, tumors, UTI, or exercise induced (marathon runners)
what is hemoglobinuria hemoglobin released into plasma due to hemolysis of RBC;s
what are some possible causes of hemoglobinuria glomerulonephritis, burns, anemia, sickle cell, transfusion reaction
what is the term used for excess leukocytes found in urine pyuria
what conditions could lead to pyuria abnormally high leukocytes and UTI's
what is bilirubinuria an abnormal amount of bilirubin in urine
what conditions could lead to bilirubinuria liver dysfunction and bile duct obstruction (ex: cirrhosis, hepatitis)
what is urobilinogen a brown pigment produced in intestines from bilirubin
what does an absence of brown urobilinogen in stool bile duct obstruction or renal disease
which organ in the urinary system produces urine kidney
which organ in the urinary system temporarily stores urine urinary bladder
what is the name of the dense fibrous layer that anchors the kidney to the surrounding structures renal fascia
in what part of the kidneys are the renal pyramids located renal medulla
the glomerulus and the glomerular capsule form the _____________ renal corpuscle
which part of the nephron has two limbs with thick and thin segments nephron loop
which artery bring oxygenated blood to the kidneys renal artery
in which of the basic processes involved in urine formation does blood pressure force water and solutes across the wall of the glomerular capillaries filtration
what is the term for the type of transport where two substances cross the membrane while bound to a carrier protein, with at least one following its concentration gradient cotransport
what is the term for the blood pressure in capillaries of the renal corpuscle glomerular hydrostatic pressure
the amount of filtrate the kidneys produce each minute is the __________________ glomerular filtration rate
constriction of the afferent arteriole (decreases/increases) the GFR decreases the GFR
in which area of the nephron are most nutrients reabsorbed proximal convoluted tubule
in which area of the nephron would countercurrent multiplication occur countercurrent multiplication occurs in the nephron loop
in which parts of the nephron does aldosterone control the reabsorption of sodium ions the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
what is the urinary structure that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder ureters
the area in the urinary bladder that is bounded by the openings of the ureters and the entrance to the urethra is the _______________ trigone
what is the initial factor that determines whether urine will be produced filtration determines whether urine will be produced
ADH stimulates the reabsorption of water in __________________ ADH stimulated both the distal convoluted and the collecting system
what are the three concentric layers of connective tissue that protects and anchors the kidneys fibrous capsule, perinephric fat capsule, and renal fascia
blood supply to the proximal and distal convoluted tubules of the nephron is provided by the _______________ peritubular capillaries
in a nephron, the long tubular passageway through which the filtrate passes includes the ____________. proximal and distal convoluted tubules and the nephron
what is the primary site in the nephron where the loss of water, sodium, and potassium ions is regulated nephron loop and collecting duct is the primary site for water, sodium, and potassium loss
what is not reabsorbed in the nephron loop bicarbonate is not reabsorbed in the nephron loop
what is the primary cite for secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions into the filtrate distal convoluted tubule
the filtration of plasma that generates approximately 80 liters/day of filtrate occurs in the ______________________ renal corpuscle produces 80 liters of filtrate /day
60 to 70 percent of the water is the reabsorbed in the _________________________ proximal convoluted tubule
which portion of the renal segment is under ADH and aldosterone stimulation the distal convoluted tubule is under ADH and aldosterone stimulation
trace the path that blood follows from the renal artery to the glomerulus segmental artery, interlobular artery, arcuate artery, cortical radiate arteries, afferent arterioles, glomerulus
trace the path that blood follows from the renal artery to the renal vein efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, venules, cortical radiate veins, arcuate veins, interlobular veins, renal veins
name the two parts that make up a nephron 1) renal corpuscle, 2) renal tubule
where is the renal corpuscle located renal cortex
where is the renal cortex located both the renal cortex and the renal medulla
name the two types of nephrons that exist 1) cortical nephrons, 2) juxtamedullary nephrons
_________________ nephrons make up 85% of nephrons and they are located primarily in the cortex cortical nephrons
___________________ nephrons have loops of Henle that deeply invade the medulla and have extensive thin segments juxtamedullary nephrons
which nephron are involved in the production of concentrated urine juxtamedullary nephrons produce concentrated urine
what is the functional unit of the kidney the nephron
what are the three functions of the nephron 1) production of filtrate, 2) reabsorption of organic nutrients, water and ions, 3) secretion of waste products into tubular fluid
the kidneys filter the entire body's plasma __________ times daily 60 times
Filtrate contains ________________ all plasma components except protein
filtrate loses ____________________ to become urine water, nutrients, and essential ions
________________ contains metabolic wastes and unneeded substances urine
the fluid that is forced out of capillaries into the Bowman 's space is called _______________________ glomerular filtrate
glomerular filtrate in the tubules is called _________ tubular fluid
why does filtrate and tubular fluid differ as the fluid travels through the tubules, substances move in and out of the tubules
where does water conservation occur collecting duct
in the collecting duct, what is the fluid called fluid in the collecting duct is called urine
in the glomerulus, what percent of plasma volume filters into the glomerular capsule 20%
in the remainder of the nephron, how much tubular fluid is reabsorbed >19%
_________________% of plasma entering the kidneys returns to systemic circulation >99%
what percent of fluid volume is excreted to the external environment as urine 1%
as blood enters the kidneys via the renal artery it (is clean/contains wastes) contains wastes
as blood leaves the kidney via the renal vein it (is clean/contains wastes) is clean
waste products/urine leaves the kidneys via the ___________________ ureters
the arterioles that leave the cortical radiate arteriole and create the ball like glomerulus are the __________________ afferent arterioles
___________________________ carry blood away from the glomerulus efferent arterioles
the capillaries in the glomerulus are found between two _____________ capillaries in the glomerulus are found between two arteries
the efferent arteriole enters into a regular capillary bed called _________________ peritubular capillaries
to create filtrate, blood plasma needs to pass through what 3 barriers to get into the capsular space 1) Fenestrated Endothelium, 2) basement membrane, 3) filtration slits
fenestrated capillaries allow the passage of ___________________ but not _______________ relatively large molecules; not blood cells
endothelial cells have sightly ___________________ charged glycoproteins on their surface that deny entrance to negatively charged molecules positively charged
the _________________________ does not allow the passage of large and negatively charged molecules basement membrane
filtration slits are formed by the pedicles of the _________________ that created filtration silts podocytes
filtrated is created on the basis of __________________ size and negatively charged particles
during filtration, blood plasma travels from ______________ to _____________ of the nephron glomerulus capillaries; capsular space
molecules smaller than ___________ in diameter pass through freely from blood to capsule 3 nanometers (3nm)
what molecules might pass freely from blood to filtrate water, sodium, glucose, amino acids, nitrogenous wastes
what two major components of blood do not cross from the glomerular capillary to the kidney tubule red blood cells, and protiens
filtration is a (active/passive) process in which hydrostatic pressure forces fluid and solutes through a membrane filtration is a passive process
________________ pressure forces fluid and solutes though a membrane hydrostatic pressurw
give four reason why the glomerulus is more efficient than other capillary beds 1) large surface area, 2) filtration membrane is more permeable, 3) higher glomerular blood pressure, 4) higher net filtration pressure
why is glomerular blood pressure higher (2 reasons) 1) arterioles are high-resistance vessels, 2) afferent arterioles have larger diameters than efferent arterioles
what are the three pressures that contribute to glomerular filtration rate 1) glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure, 2) hydrostatic pressure of the capsular space, 3) the colloid osmotic pressure
_________________ is a result of continuous filtration and the presence of fluid in the capsular space hydrostatic pressure in the capsular space
the glomerular filtration is almost _______________________ and has no significant COP protein-free
what forces work to move fluid from capillaries to the capsular space Glomerular capillaries hydrostatic pressure
the glomerular capillaries hydrostatic pressure is roughly ____________________ mmHg 55-60
what forces work to move fluid from the filtrate back into the capillaries blood colloid pressure and capsular space hydrostatic pressure
in the glomerular capsule, blood colloid pressure is roughly ____________ mmHg 32
in the glomerular capsule, capsular space hydrostatic pressure is _______________ mmHg 18
what is the net filtration pressure of glomerulus 10 mmHg = (60-18-32)
what are the two mechanisms used to control the GFR intrinsic and extrinsic mechanism
name two factors that help the renal autoregulation that control GFR tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, myogenic mechanism
name two extrinsic mechanisms that control GFR hormonal and neural controls
what hormonal system helps control GFR the renin-angiotensin system
___________________________ is the ability of the nephron to adjust the blood flow and GFR without external control Renal Autoregulation
under normal conditions autoregulation maintains a (nearly constant/varied) glomerular filtration rate nearly constant
the tubuloglomerular feedback system is ____________-dependent flow -dependent
___________________________________ senses changes in the juxtaglomerular apparatus tubuloglomerular feedback
myogenic responds to changes in the pressure of _____________________ renal blood vessels
the juxtaglomerular apparatus monitors the fluid entering the ____________ and adjusts the _______________ distal convoluted tubule; glomerular filtration rate
what are the two components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus 1) the granular/juxtaglomerular cells, 2) the macular densa
the _________________ respond to the macula densa to dilate or constrict the afferent arterioles the granular/juxtaglomerular cells
the granular cells act as ______________________________ that sense blood pressure mechanoreceptors
the granular cells release ______________________ when BP decreases renin
the ____________________ is a patch of epithelial tissue at the start of the distal convoluted tubule directly across from the juxtaglomerular cells macula densa
the macula densa senses ___________________ concentration in the tubular fluid Sodium Chloride
if GFR rises, what happens to the flow of tubular fluid the rate of fluid tubular fluid increases
an increased rate of tubular fluid leads to an (increase/decrease) in NaCl reabsorption Increased tubular flow, leads to a decrease in NaCl reabsorption
if GFR rises, what happens to NaCl reabsorption NaCl reabsorption decreases with the rise of GFR
if the reabsorption of NaCl Decreases then the _______________________ senses the change macula densa sense the change
if there is a decrease in NaCl reabsorption, what happens do the macula densa do macula densa stimulate the granular (or juxtaglomerular) cells and the afferent arteriole contricts
if the tubular flow increases what happens to the afferent arteriole the afferent arteriole constricts
if the GFR rises, how does the tubuloglomerular feedback respond the afferent arteriole diameter decreases
the _____________________ mechanism is based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when streched myogenic mechanism is based on the smooth muscle
if blood pressure rises, how does the myogenic mechanism work to keep the GFR consistant myogenic mechanism constricts the afferent arterioles
how does the constriction of afferent arterioles protect the glomeruli arteriole constriction protects the glomeruli from damaging high BP
to help maintain normal GFR, how does the myogenic mechanism respond to low BP afferent arterioles dilate in response to low BP
what chemical signal does the macula densa use to signal the afferent arteriole to constrict paracrines
when the sympathetic nervous system is AT REST, what two things happen 1) renal blood vessels are maximally dilated, and 2) intrinsic mechanisms are in control
under stress, norepinephrine is released by the _______________________; while epinephrine is released by ____________________ sympathetic nervous system; adrenal medulla
in response to stress, what happens in the kidneys/nephrons afferent arterioles constrict and filtration is inhibited
the renin-angiotensin mechanism is stimulated by the ____________ division of the ANS sympathetic division of the ANS stimulates the renin-angiotensin mechanism
renin is released by the __________________ juxtaglomerular (granular) cells release renin
renin release is triggered by _________________ a reduction in afferent arteriole pressure
renin acts on ___________________ to release angiotensin I angiotensinogen
what enzyme converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II in the lungs angiotensin converting enzyme
what happens in response to angiotensin II release vasoconstriction (a rise in mean arterial blood pressure), and stimulates the release of aldosterone (adrenal cortex)
what endocrine organ does angiotensin II stimulate to release aldosterone adrenal cortex
___________________ converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
the ______________________ is the location of filtrate processing into urine renal tubule
what three parts of the nephron makeup the renal tubule 1) proximal convoluted tubule, 2) loop of henle, 3) distal convoluted tubule
conversion of glomerular filtrate to urine involves the ___________________ and ____________ of chemicals by tubular reabsorption and secretion removal and addition
reabsorption from _________________ to the __________________ tubules; blood stream
secretion from the ____________________ to the ____________________ blood stream: tubules
the ____________________________ reabsorbs 60-70% of the filtrate volume proximal convoluted tubule
100% of ______________ in filtrate is reabsorbed (under normal circumstances) glucose
substances are not reabsorbed if_______________ (name 3) 1) lack carriers, 2) are not lipid soluble, 3) are too large to pass through membrane pores
transport maximum reflects ___________________ the number of carriers in the renal tubules available
transport maximum is (limited only to specific substances/nearly every substance) that are actively absorbed transport maximum exist for nearly every substance
what happens when all transport carriers are saturated then the excess chemicals of that substance are secreted
what happens to reabsorption when concentrations rise in tubular fluid reabsorption rates increase until carrier proteins are saturated
what happens when the concentration is higher than the transport maximum some materials will remain in the tubular fluid and appear in the urine
for glucose reabsorption, the apical membrane has ______________________ carrier proteins secondary active transport for glucose
for glucose reabsorption, the basolateral membrane has _________________ carrier proteins facilitated diffusion
how is osmolality measured the number of solute particles dissolved in 1L of water
__________________ reflects the solution's ability to cause osmosis osmolality
how are bodily fluids measured (regarding osmolality) milliosmols (mOsm)
the kidneys keep the solute load of body fluids constant at about 300 mOsm because of ________________________ mechanism countercurrent mechanism
Created by: kandriot



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