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Social Research

QuestionAnswer
a sample is limited number of cases drawn from the larger population
a representative sample is a sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole
how are representative samples selected? randomly in order to eliminate bias
qualitative data only classified in categories not numerically measured, resulting data is categorical
discrete data can be counted / numbers stats
Continuous data is measurable
what is a way of eliminating the signs of deviation before averaging? it is to square the numbers
what are the four things hypothesis are? clear, specific, testable, value free
when do you use an ordinal question? this is when your respondents have to rank their responses in order. This shows the importance of their answer from greatest to least
when do you use a numerical question? the the answer must be a number
what does qualitative research do? it looks closely at aspects of social life that cannot be measured quantiatively and that are best understood within a natural setting
dependent variable is the effect of the independent variable sometimes called a response
independent variable in an experiment sometimes called the stimulus, its the variable that brings about the effect or the dependent variable
what is correlation simply a measure of how things are related to another when a change in a trait, behavoir, or an event (independent variable)
when does a positive correlation exist? if both the independent and dependent variable change in the same direction
when does a negative correlation exist? if the variables change in opposite directions
what is a casual relationship? when one variable causes the other to occur
what are the three standards for showing causation "two variables must be correlated (independent) all other possible factors must be taken into account: the fact that 2 variables are correlated does not mean that one causes the other– need to find hidden cause all other possible factors must be taken in
What should you do if you are planning to do social research? Be familiar with the literature
A deductive theory is one that? Involves testing an explicitly defined hypothesis
What does 'sampling cases' mean? Sampling people, newspapers, television programs etc.
What is not a data–collection method? Research questions
Why is data analysis concerned with data reduction? Because we need to make sense of the data
What does an empiricist believe? Knowledge in the form of facts should be gained through sensory experience
Inductive theory is one that? Allows theory to emerge out of the data
What is the epistemological position held by a positivist? Scientific research should be based on value–free, empirical observations
The qualitative research strategy places a value on? Generating theories through inductive research about social meanings
If a study is reliable this means that? The measures devised for concepts are stable on different occasions
Internal validity refers to? Whether or not there is really a causal relationship between two variables
In an experimental design, the dependent variable is? The one that is not manipulated and in which any changes are observed
One of the preoccupations of quantitative researchers is with generalisation, which is a sign of? External validity
A sampling frame is? A list of all the units in the population from which a sample will be selected
A simple random sample is one in which? Every unit of the population has an equal chance of being selected
What is narrative analysis? An approach that is sensitive to questions that concern how people choose to sequences and represent people and events
What is one of the main ethical problems associated with conducting a secondary analysis of qualitative data? The participants may not have given informed consent to the reuse of their data
The natural sciences have often been characterised as being positivist in epistemological orientation. Which of the following has been proposed as an alternative account? Realism
What does the term quasi–quantification refer to? The use of words like many, some or often in qualitative research
Why is it argued that qualitative research may not really be naturalistic? Because methods such as interviews and focus groups constitute artificial social settings
What is ethnostatistics? The study of the way statistics are constructed, interpreted and represented
In what way does the thematic analysis of interview data suggest quantification? It involves establishing the frequency of particular words, phrases or themes
How does quantification help the qualitative research avoid being accused of anecdotalism? By providing some idea of the prevalence of an unusual or striking response
What is the name of one of the arguments that suggests that research methods are inextricably linked to epistemological commitments? Embedded methods argument
Which version of the debate about multi–strategy research suggests that quantitative and qualitative research is compatible? Technical version
What is triangulation? Cross–checking the results found by different research strategies
How might quantitative research facilitate qualitative research? By identifying specific groups of people to be interviewed
Whereas quantitative research tends to bring out a static picture of social life, qualitative research depicts it as? Processual
How might qualitative research help with the analysis of quantiative data? By helping to explain the relationship between two variables
conceptualization The mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions (concepts) are made more specific and precise.
construct validity The degree to which a measure relates to other variables as expected within a system of theoretical relationships.
content validity The degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within a concept.
criterion–related validity The degree to which a measure relates to some external criterion. For example, the validity of the College Board exams is shown in their ability to predict the college success of students.
indicator An observation that we choose to consider as a reflection of a variable we wish to study.
interval measure A level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes are rank–ordered and have equal distances between adjacent attributes.
nominal measure A variable whose attributes have only the characteristics of exhaustiveness and mutual exclusiveness.
ordinal measure A level of measurement describing a variable with attributes we can rank–order along some dimension.
ratio measure A level of measurement describing a variable with attributes that have all the qualities of nominal, ordinal, and interval measures and in addition are based on a true zero" point."
reliability That quality of measurement method that suggests that the same data would have been collected each time in repeated observations of the same phenomenon.
validity A term describing a measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to measure. For example, your IQ would seem a more valid measure of your intelligence than would the number of hours you spend in the library.
Deductive Approach Theory –> Observations/findings
Inductive Approach "Observations/findings –> Theory
"Epistemological Issues is Issues concerning what is regarded as acceptable knowledge in a discipline
Ontological Issues Issues concerning the nature of social entities"
2 Epistemological views Positivism: View that the social sciences should be approached objectively, in the same manner as the physical sciences (associated with the deductive approach)
Interperetivism View that subject matter of social sciences is fundamentally different from natural sciences and therefore requires a different research approach"
Ontological View "Objectivism: View that social phenomena have an objective reality external to social actors
Constructionism: View that social entities are socially constructed"
2 Types of Research Strategies Quantitative Research: Research strategy focusing on the quantification and analysis of data
Qualitative Research: Research strategy focusing on words and in–depth data"
Types of Validity "– Measurement/Construct Validity: Extent to which research really reflects concept in question – Internal Validity: Whether there is a causal relationship between the variables – External Validity: Extent to which results can be generalized beyond rese
4 Ethical Concerns Regarding Participants "– Informed consent – Invasion of Privacy – Deception – Confidentiality"
What is ethnography -research method in which the researcher is immersed in the social setting for an extended period - ethnic/culture
snowball sampling - find someone that would be part of your survey and ask if they know anyone who want to join
Max Weber 1910: sociologist - Darth vader thinks of himself - interperivist -study of individuals
Internal validity when there’s a good match between the researcher’s observations and the theoretical ideas they develop
unstructured interviews and field notes are examples of __methods qualitative
Independent Variable A variable on which the dependent variable depends; in experiments, a variable that the experimenter manipulates to determine the degree to which there are effects on another variable.
Abstract expression, term, or concept that is formulated (constructed) to serve as a casual or descriptive explanation. Construct
A variable the changes in which are viewed as dependent on changes in one or more other variables. Dependant variables
Mean sum of all the individual numbers you have, add up and divide by the number of cases. Average
Organize all data into distribution and pick most middle number. Median
only nominal number that appears in a distribution most often, 2 modes are allowed. Mode
Interval . Categorical with Magnitude with intervals of equal size. Turn head to side (can go in negatives)
Ratio CAn not go into negatives, Categorical with Magnitude with equal size intervals with true zero.
Scales of measurement NOIR - Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio
Continuous Fractional amounts along with continuum.
What are the four common ways that we make mistakes if we don't do things scientifically Inaccurate observations Over generalizations Illogical Reasoning Selective Observation
What are the five qualities of scientific research? Logical Empirical Systematic Replicable Partial and Dynamic
What does social science do? What is the difference between basic and applied social science research? What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative social science research? Social science is about individuals vs aggregate(average). Basic is "How do people process and make sense of stories?" and applied is much more detailed. Quantitative is numbers qualitative is info.
What are the 3 paradigms? Positivist Interpretive Critical
Core assumption of positivist paradigm? There is an objective reality knowable only through empirical observation. We can identify specific, independent causes of social phenomena.
Core assumption of interpretive paradigm? Reality is subjective and dependent on how people create meaning. Humans are purposeful actors who strategically use information to make sense out of social phenomena.
Core assumption of critical paradigm? Power relationships shape all social phenomena (gender, class, race). Understanding is achieved through critical reflection on empirical observations.
Critical point of positivist paradigm The positivist paradigm does NOT assume that causes cannot be related to one another. It does, however, assume that we can find ways to pull them apart (through research design and statistical analysis) and identify the independent effects of each one.
What makes a good research question? (5) Are questions Include variables (positivist, systems) Are testable or can be addressed with data Are not personal value judgments Are clear grammatical statements
What are the differences between a research question and a hypothesis Question vs. Statement
What are the differences between a directional hypothesis, conditional hypothesis, and null hypothesis? Directional states something. Conditional states something with a condition. Null states no relation. We ALWAYS FIRST assume that the null hypothesis is true.
What do theories do “A set of statements that renders intelligible some phenomenon or process” Put more simply: “A set of statements that predict and explain stuff that happens”
What is the difference between inductive thinking and deductive thinking? Deductive= Top Down.General to specific. Theory->Hypothesis->Observation->Confirmation. Inductive= Bottom up. Specific to General. Observation->Pattern->Tentative Hypothesis->Theory
What are the four central concepts in human subjects research? Voluntary Participation No Harm to Participants Anonymity and Confidentiality Deception
What do internal validity and external validity tell us? Internal addresses the "truth value" of a study.Studies the research design. External speaks to a study's generalization. Asks "Does the research design allow the researcher to generalize the results to other settings, times, and populations"
What are the factors that threaten external validity? Contrived Settings Application to Other Populations How well do results apply to other groups?
When will we have high internal validity and low external validity? What will we have low internal validity and high external validity? Lab Experiments (High Control) Have high internal low external. One-time Survey (lower control) has lower internal and higher external validity.
Population The universe of events to which you wish to generalize.”
Census Study/consider EVERYONE from the population
Sample You select some events or people from the population
What is a margin of error? What does it mean to have a 3% error? Sampling Error “Margin of error is +/- 3%” More people, less error
What does measurement validity mean? Does the research use scales or instruments that accurately measure the variables that are being studied?
Conceptualization Conceptualization-The concept “The process of coming to an agreement about what we mean by a term” (or variable)
What is measurement validity? Does a measure adequately reflect the real meaning of the concept?
What can a content analysis tell you? Pros Can generalize, replicate Suggests possible effects
What can't a content analysis tell you? Cons No direct evidence of cause or effect Latent meanings not always clear It’s difficult to get reliability
Likert Scale Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree (undecided) Agree Strongly agree
Correlation Identification of association between two factors
culture The beliefs, customs, behaviors, rules, and rituals a group uses to define their life together and transmit from one generation to the next
dependent variable In experimental research, the area that may change after the introduction of, or changes in, the independent variable
Theory group of concepts that describe a pattern of reality Can be tested, changed, or used to guide research
Concepts abstract impressions organized into symbols of reality Conceptual framework or model
Deductive reasoning Examines general ideas and considers specific actions or ideas
Inductive reasoning Builds from specific ideas or actions to conclusions about general ideas
what are the four things hypothesis are? clear, specific, testable, value free
when do you use an ordinal question? this is when your respondents have to rank their responses in order. This shows the importance of their answer from greatest to least
when do you use a numerical question? the the answer must be a number
what does qualitative research do? it looks closely at aspects of social life that cannot be measured quantiatively and that are best understood within a natural setting
dependent variable the effect of the independent variable sometimes called a response
independent variable in an experiment sometimes called the stimulus, its the variable that brings about the effect or the dependent variable
what is correlation simply a measure of how things are related to another
when does a positive correlation exist? if both the independent and dependent variable change in the same direction
when does a negative correlation exist? if the variables change in opposite directions
what is a casual relationship? when one variable causes the other to occur
what are the three standards for showing causation 2variables must be correlated (independent) all otherfactors must be taken into account: the fact that 2 variables are correlated does not mean that one causes the other– need to find hidden cause, a change in the independent variable must occur before a
What should you do if you are planning to do social research? Be familiar with the literature
A deductive theory is one that? Involves testing an explicitly defined hypothesis
Why is data analysis concerned with data reduction? Because we need to make sense of the data
Inductive theory is one that? Allows theory to emerge out of the data
What is the epistemological position held by a positivist? Scientific research should be based on value–free, empirical observations
The qualitative research strategy places a value on? Generating theories through inductive research about social meanings
If a study is reliable this means that? he measures devised for concepts are stable on different occasions
Internal validity refers to? Whether or not there is really a causal relationship between two variables
In an experimental design, the dependent variable is? The one that is not manipulated and in which any changes are observed
One of the preoccupations of quantitative researchers is with generalisation, which is a sign of? External validity
What is narrative analysis? An approach that is sensitive to questions that concern how people choose to sequences and represent people and events
What is one of the main ethical problems associated with conducting a secondary analysis of qualitative data? The participants may not have given informed consent to the reuse of their data
4 Ethical Concerns Regarding Participants – Informed consent– Invasion of Privacy– Deception– Confidentiality
PIC is Positivism, Interpretivism, Critical emancipation
OEMM Ontology, Epistimology, Methodology, Method
MODE MOOOST popular, moooosttt numbers the same
Mean add all numbers up divide by amount of numbers present
MEDIAN Middle number. If there are even numbers find the two numbers in middle - add them together and divide by 2
The approach that "amounted to the methodological assertion that any variable which cannot be directly represented by a measurement operation has no place in science" is consistent with: A. Liberalism B. Positivism C. Post-Positivism D. Rationalism B. Positivism
The statement that the positivist way of knowing attempts to study only those things that can be 'objectively' measured would describe which criteria of the positivist approach? A. Measurability B. Objectivity C. Reducing uncertainty D. Duplication A. Measurability
If there is a causal relationship between 2 variables;1 variable causes the existence of the other then you would: A. Develop concepts B. Identify variables within concepts C. Put value labels on variables D. Define independent and dependent variables D. Define independent and dependent variables
Interpretive researchers believe that values should: A. Not influence research B. Influence research C. Should be acknowledged D. Have no place in research C. Should be acknowledged
To develop an in-depth understanding of the reality of the people involved in the phenomenon of interest would describe the goal of: A. The positivist approach B. The qualitative approach C. The empirical approach D. The scientific method B. The qualitative approach
The principle data collecting instrument in qualitative research is the: A. Questionnaire B. Standardized test C. Survey D. Researcher D. Researcher
What is NOT an example of probability sampling: A. SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING B. SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING C. QUOTA SAMPLING D. STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING C. QUOTA SAMPLING
The first and arguably the most important ethical issue is the need for: A. INFORMED CONSENT B. CONFIDENTIALITY C. ANONYMITY D. COMPENSATION A. INFORMED CONSENT
Keeping confidential about which participants were included in the study has to do with: A. INFORMED CONSENT B. CONFIDENTIALITY C. ANONYMITY D. COMPENSATION C. ANONYMITY
If little is known about a given topic, we would generally engage in; A. An exploratory study. b. A descriptive study. c. An explanatory study. d. A quantitative study. A. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY
U want 2 know if a causal relationship exists between 2 phenomena, you would use; A exploratory study b A descriptive study c An explanatory study d A quantitative study C. AN EXPLANATORY STUDY
In formulating research questions we must consider; a.Their relevance to clients and the organization. b.If the question is researchable. c.If there is the possibility of harm to clients. d.All of the above. D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
ONTOLOGY: NATURE OF REALITY
METHODOLOGY: PROCEDURES OR LOGIC USED TO ANSWER QUESTIONS
EPISTEMOLOGY: STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE
External validity in program evaluation is concerned with the following. a.The dependent variable b.The independent variable c.Causality d.Generalizability to a wider population d.Generalizability to a wider population
When the responses of the interview of new participants fit easily into the existing categories, you can; a. Begin the analysis b. Code the responses c. Conduct more interviews d. Stop interviewing d. Stop interviewing
A variable is anything that varies, which means that there must be at least; a. One value per variable. b. Two values per variable. c. More than two values per variable. d. Several values per variable. b. Two values per variable.
The methodological assertion that any variable which cannot be directly represented by a measurement operation has no place in science” is consistent with; a. Liberalism. b. Positivism. c. Post-Positivism. d. Rationalism. b. Positivism.
There are generally two types of hypotheses; a. Numerical and non-numerical. b. A research hypothesis and a test hypothesis. c. A directional and non-directional hypothesis. d. A quantitative and qualitative hypothesis. c. A directional and non-directional hypothesis.
In quantitative methods there are two types of statistical data analyses; a. Numerical and a non-numerical. b. Quantitative and qualitative. c. Descriptive and inferential. d. Standard and advanced. c. Descriptive and inferential.
The Nuremberg Code on research ethics states that participants must; a. Be compensated for participating in research. b. Voluntarily consent to participating in research. c. Not be identified in research. d. Not be exposed to risks. b. Voluntarily consent to participating in research.
NAME THE 4 LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT: (NOIR) NOMINAL ORDINAL INTERVAL RATIO
WHAT ARE THE MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY? MODE MEDIAN MEAN
WHAT ARE THE MEASURES OF VARIABILITY? RANGE & STANDARD DEVIATION
WHAT DESCRIBES THE AVERAGE DISTANCE OF ALL THE VALUES FROM THE MEAN? STANDARD DEVIATION
THIS TEST ANSWERS THE QUESTION: DOES THIS INSTRUMENT MEASURE WHAT IT INTENDS TO MEASURE? VALIDITY
THIS TEST ANSWERS THE QUESTION: HOW RELIABLE IS THE INSTRUMENT IN GIVING ACCURATE INFORMATION CONSISTENTLY OVER TIME? RELIABILITY
STATISTICS THAT DETERMINE ASSOCIATIONS? A. DEPENDENT T TESTS B. INDEPENDENT T TESTS C. CHI-SQUARE D. CORRELATION D. CORRELATION
STATISTICS THAT DETERMINE DIFFERENCES? A. DEPENDENT T TESTS B. INDEPENDENT T TESTS C. ONE-WAY ANALYSIS D. ALL OF THE ABOVE D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
STATISTICS THAT ARE USED TO DESCRIBE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A POPULATION: A. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY B. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS C. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS D. ALL OF THE ABOVE B. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
STATISTICS USED WHEN WE WANT TO GENERALIZE OUR FINDINGS TO A LARGER POPULATION BASED ON A SAMPLE OF CASES? A. PROBABILITY APPROACH B. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS C. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS D. INDEPENDENT T TEST C. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
T-TESTS AND CORRELATIONS REQUIRE DATA AT WHAT LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT? A. NOMINAL B. ORDINAL C. INTERVAL OR RATIO D. NONE OF THE ABOVE C. INTERVAL OR RATIO
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE HIGHEST AND LOWEST DATA SET IS THE? A. MEAN B. MEDIAN C. MODE D. RANGE D. RANGE
IF A MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT REVEALS DIFFERENCES IN THE PHENOMENON MEASURED RATHER THAN THE DIFFERENCES INHERENT IN THE MEASURING INSTRUMENT THIS PROVES? A. THE DATA IS GOOD B. THE INSTRUMENT IS RELIABLE C. THE DATA SET IS INCOMPLETE D. ALL OF THE ABOV B. THE INSTRUMENT IS RELIABLE
Created by: Belle Elle
 

 



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