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Human Immune System

A&P II - Human Lymphatic/Immune System

QuestionAnswer
what is the main function of the lymphatic system to return interstitial fluid and leaked plasma proteins to the blood
what is lymph lymph is interstitial fluid that has entered the lymphatic vessels
what area of the body drains into the right lymphatic duct the right side of the head, neck, RUE, and upper right side of the trunk
where does the right lymphatic duct empty lymph right subclavian vein
what lymph vessels drain into the thoracic duct everything that does not empty into the right lymphatic duct (left side of upper body , lower trunk, and BLE)
where does the thoracic duct empty lymph into left subclavian vein
lymphatic system is a (one-way/two-way) system with valves the lymphatic system is a ONE-WAY system
(lymphatic/blood) capillaries have endothelial minivalves lymphatic capillaries
why are mini-valves special? they function as one-way gates that allow interstitial fluid to enter but not escape
during inflammation, what three things does lymph pick up along with interstitial fluid cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells
what do lymph nodes do wth cell debris, pathogens, anc cancer cells that are in the lymph lymph nodes "examine" and cleanse the debris
where are lacteals located the digestive tract
what are lacteals? lacteals are specialized lymph capillaries in the digestive tract that absorb digested fat and deliver chyle to the blood
lymph vessels (do/do not) have valves lymph vessels DO have valves
between lymph vessels and blood vessels, which ones anastomose more frequently lymph vessels anastomose more frequently
more superficial lymph vessels follow (veins/arteries) more superficial lymph vessels follow VEINS
what circulatory structure do deep lymph vessels tend to follow deep lymph vessels tend to follow arteries
what is the term for the largest collecting lymphatic trunks lymphatic ducts
there are two lymphatic ducts, name them thoracic duct, right lymphatic duct
the right lymphatic duct drains what parts of the body right upper limb, right side of the head, neck, thorax, and upper abdomen
what duct drains a majority of the body thoracic duct drains most of the body
the lymphatic system (has/lacks) a pumping organ the lymphatic system LACKS a pumping organ
in the lymphatic system, vessels are (high/low)-pressure in the lymphatic system, vessels are LOW-pressure
how does lymph return blood to the heart pulsations from nearby arteries , and contractions of smooth muscle in the walls of lymphatic vessels
what is the main white blood cell active in immune response lymphocytes are the main white blood cells in lymphatic system
there are two types of lymphocytes, name them T lymphocytes (T-Cells) and B Lymphocytes (B-Cells)
the T cells and B cells protect the body against ____________________ T cells and B cells protect the body against antigens
what is an antigen an antigen is anything the body perceives as foreign
Bacteria, toxins, and Viruses (are/are not) considered to be antigens Bacterial, toxins, and viruses ARE considered to be angtigens
Mismatched RBC's and Cancer cells (are/are not) considered to be angtigens Mismatched RBC's and Cancer Cells ARE considered tobe antigens
(B/T) Cells manage the immune response T Cells manage the immune response
what cells attack and destroy foreign cells T cells attack and destroy foreign cells
which cells produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies the B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies
_________________________ are secreted from the B Cells immobilize antigens antibodies are secreted for the B cells and immobilize antigens
what are the principle lymphoid organs of the body lymph nodes are the principle lymphoid organs of the body
where are lymph nodes located they are embedded in connective tissue and clustered along lymphatic vessels
what are the three locations of the body where aggregations of the lymph nodes occur the inguinal, axillary, and cervical
what are the two main functions of the lymph nodes filtration and immune system activation
how do lymph nodes filter lymph macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris
how does the lymph node activate the immune system they monitor for antigens and mount an attack against them
what is the name of the fibrous inward extensions of the lymph nodes into compartments trabeculae
what are the two histologically distinct regions of a lymph node the cortex and the medulla
what is the largest lymphoid organ that is located right next to the stomach spleen is the largest lymphoid organ
what is the name of blood vessels (artery and vein) that serve the spleen the splenic artery and the splenic vein serve the spleen
where do the splenic artery and vein enter and exit the spleen the enter and exit at the hilus
what are the three main functions of the spleen 1) site of lymphocyte proliferation, 2) immune surveillance & response, 3) cleans the blood
where are broken down components of RBC's stored for later use spleen stores broken down components of RBC's
what cells in the spleen salvage and store iron splenic macrophages store iron for later use
what is the site of erythrocyte production in a fetus the spleen is the site of fetal erythrocyte prodution
where are platelets stored platelets are stored in the spleen
what organ secretes thymosin and thymopoietin thymus secretes thymosin and thymopoietin
what two hormones cause T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent thymosin and thymopoietin help T lymphocytes become more immunocompetent
when is does the thymus increase in size and become most active during childhood, the thymus increases in size and becomes most active
what organ stops growing during adolescence then gradually atrophies in adulthood the thymus stops growing during adolescence then atrophies during adulthood
what lymphoid organ functions strictly in T cell maturation thymus strictly functions in T cell maturation
what is the only lymphoid organ that does not directly fight antigens the thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not directly fight antigens
what are the simplest lymphoid organs the tonsils are the simplest lymphoid organs
where are the palatine tonsils located either side of the posterior end of the oral cavity
where are the lingual tonsils located lingual tonsils are located at the base of the tongue
where is the pharyngeal tonsil located the posterior wall of the nasopharynx
where are the tubal tonsils located tubal tonsils surround the openings of hte auditory tubes into the pharynx
what histological lymphoid structures are included on the tonsils follicles and germinal centers
the masses of tonsils (are/are not) fully encapsulated the masses of tonsils ARE NOT fully encapsulated
what lymphoid organ contains blind-ended crypts formed by epithelial tissue that invaginates tonsils have blind-ended crypts formed by epithelial tissue
what is the purpose of the blind-ended crypts on tonsils the crypts of tonsils trap and destroy bacteria and other particulate matter
what are peyer's patches peyer's patches are isolated clusters of lymphoid tissue in the digestive tract
what main structures of lymphatic tissue are found in the distal portion of the small intestine and appendix peyer's patches
what is the purpose of lymphoid tissue, in the digestive tract destroy bacteria and generated "memory" lymphocytes for long term immunity
what is MALT mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue
what are some examples of MALT peyer's patchs, tonsils, and appendix, lymphoid nodules in respiratory tract
what is the purpose of MALT protect the G.I. and respiratory systems from foreign matter
viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites that are capable of living inside the body and causing harm are called ________________________ pathogens
which type of lymphocyte produces antibodies B lymphocytes produce antibodies
the largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body, which consists of red and white pulp and is found attached to the lateral boarder of the stomach spleen
which type cell engulf pathogens and cell debris phagocytes
which cells are involved in immunological surveillance natural killer cells
a child is given a vaccine to polio. what form of immunity does this represent artificially induced active immunity
what type of cell surface protein is found only on antigen-presenting cells ant lymphocytes and allows them to communicate with each othere MHC II
what type of T Cell is responsible for seeking out and destroying abnormal or infected cells cytotoxic T Cells seek out and destroy abnormal or infected cells
which antibody (Ig_____) is the first class of antibody to be secreted in response to an antigen and is a pentamer IgM
AIDS is an example of _________________ (an immune complex disorder/a hypersensitivity/an immunodeficiency/an autoimmune disorder) AIDS is an example of an immunodeficiency
The anatomical barriers and defense mechanisms that CANNOT distinguish one potential threat from another are called _______________ innate defenses
the three major components of the lymphatic system include the ____________________ lymphatic vessels, lymph, and lymphatic organs
lymphocytes that assist in the regulation and coordination of the immune response are ___________________________ helper T and suppressor T cells
normal lymphocyte populations are maintained through lymphopoiesis in the ________________ and the ____________________ lymphopoiesis is located in red bone marrow and the lymphatic tissue
mucous, sweat gland secretions, hairs, and sebaceous secretions all contribute to the effectiveness of which type of innate defense mucous, sweat glands, hairs, and sebaceous secretions all contribute to physical barriers
what is the "first line" of cellular defense against pathogenic invasion phagocytes
Natural Killer cells contain the perforin and protectin that provides a type of immunity called ___________________________ immunological surveillance
what are the two major ways that the body "carries out" the immune response to a specific antigen direct attack by T cells and attack by circulating antibodies
an adaptive defense mechanism is always activated by _________________ an antigen
a cross-reaction following transfusion with an incompatible blood type is an example of which immune response a cytotoxic reaction
before and antigen can stimulate a lymphocyte, it must first be processed by ___________________ macrophage must process an antigen prior to stimulating a lymphocyte
the T cells that limit the degree of immune system activation from a single stimulus are _____________________ suppressor T cells
an antibody exhibits a high degree of flexibility as a result of the interchangeability of the ____________________ variable segment
antibodies may promote inflammation through the stimulation of _________________ and _________________. basophils and mast cells
the epitope site is the certain portion of the antigen's exposed surface where ________________________ the antibody attaches
For a B cell to be activated, it must ___________________________. be bound by a helter T Cell at a class II MHC and bind an antigen to a surface antibody
the ability to demonstrate and immune response after exposure to an antigen is called ___________________ immunocompetence
A baby developing in the womb has _________________________ immunity because it receives _____________________ antibodies from its mother naturally acquired passive immunity, receives IgG from mother
tissue fluid enters the lymphatic system via the _______________ fluid enters the lymphatic system via the lymph capillaries
when an antigen appears, the adaptive immune system response begins with ______________________ the activation of specific T cells and B cells
In what way do mast cells participate in tissue defense? stimulation and coordination of inflammation by release of histamine and heparin
chemical mediators of inflammation include what 4 things 1) histamine, 2) heparin, 3) prostaglandins, and 4) complements
T cells that are activated by costimulation involving a class i MHC and CD8 makers are called _____________________ cytotoxic T cells are activated by costimulation involving a class I MHC and CD8
what type of cells do B lymphocytes differentiate into? memory cells and plasma cells
______________ may activate B cells, whereas _______________ inhibit the activity of B cells Helper T Cells activate B Cells, and suppressor T cells inhibit the B cells
the primary response of CD8 T cell differentiation in cell-mediated immunity is the production of ____________________ cells cytotoxic T cells is the produced as the primary response of CD8 T cells differentiation
the vaccination of antigenic materials into the body is called artificially induced active immunity
In passive immunity, (T and B cells/antigens/lymphocytes/antibodies) are introduced into the body by injection antibodies
what is the lymphatic function of the white pulp of the spleen initiation of immune response by B cells and T cells
the antibodies produced and secreted by B lymphocytes are soluble proteins called immunoglobulins
the genes found in a region called the major histocompatibility complex are also called _____________________ human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)
memory B cells do NOT differentiate into plasma cells UNLESS they are _____________________ exposed to the same antigen a second time
The three-dimensional "fit" between the variable segments of the antibody molecule and the corresponding antigenic determinant site is referred to as_________________ the antibody-antigen complex
one of the primary nonspecific effects that glucocorticoids have on the immune response is ______________ depression of the inflammatory response
what type of nonspecific immunity mobilizes defenses and accelerates repairs fever
what type of nonspecific immunity removes debris and pathogens phagocytes
what type of the nonspecific immunity prevents the approach of and deny access to pathogens physical barriers
what type of the nonspecific immunity attacks and breaks down target cell membranes, promoting phagocytosis complement system
what type of the nonspecific immunity increases resistance of cells to viral infection interferons
what type of nonspecific immunity destroys abnormal cells immunological surveillance
what type of immunity is genetically determined, no prior exposure of antibody production involved innate immunity
what is artificially induced active immunity develops after administration of antigen to prevent disease
what is adaptive immunity produced by exposure to an antigen not present at birth
what type of immunity develops after exposure to antigens in environment naturally induced active immunity
what is innate immunity genetically determined, no prior exposure or antibody production involved
what type of immunity is produced by transfer of antibodies from another person artificially acquired passive immunity
what originates as blind pockets, may contain lymphocytes, and do not contain walls with cells not tightly bound together lymph capillaries do not contain walls with cells
what is located in the mediastinum, this organ is largest in children but diminishes with age, and it is the site of T cell maturation the thymus is large in children and diminishes with age and is the sit of T cell maturation
what organ contains both red and white pulp, this is a site for the removal of abnormal blood cells and is used to initiate responses by B and T cells the spleen contain red/white pulp and is site of removal for abnormal cells
in the lymphatic system, which is the smallest of organs, having a diameter of up to 1-inch and containing afferent and efferent lymphatics lymph nodes are 1 inch in diameter and have afferent and efferent lymphatics
most people have five of these structures, which are located in the oral, nasal and pharyngeal areas there are five TONSILS located in the mouth, nasal and pharyngeal areasl
what does the term "tolerance" mean in the Immune system tolerance is the ability of the immune system to ignore normal, self antigens while responding to foreign, nonself antigens
what does the term "versatility" mean in the immune system the ability of the immune system to respond to tens of thousands of antigens by producing an enormous number of lymphocyte populations, each with sensitivity to a unique set of antigens
what term describes the ability of the immune system to produce a response to a particular antigen and no other. This is a results of the ability to activate specific lymphocytes specificity
what term best describes the immune system's ability to "remember" specific antigens through the production of memory cells, which are produced after an initial exposure to an antigen memory
which cells realign it's golgi Apparatus to secrete perforins causing lysis of cancerous or virus-infected cells natural killer cells realign their golgi apparatus and release perforins
____________________ are important in the resistance of tissues to viral infection interferons are important in the resistance of tissues to viral infections
(lymph/blood plasma) contains more proteins than (lymph/blood plasma) BLOOD PLASMA contains more proteins than LYMPH
Ig_________________ is the must abundant and diverse class of antibodies in the body IgG is the most abundant and diverse class of antibodies in the body
what is a pathogens a pathogen is any microscoping organism that causes diseases
which of the following are considered to be pathogens? (viruses/bacteria/fungi/parasites) all of the options provided are considered to be pathogens
what is the ability to resist infection and disease immunity is the ability to resist infection and disease
name the five components of the lymphatic system lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymphoid tissue/organs, lymphoid cells
what is a fluid that is similar to plasma but lacks protiens lymph is similar to plasma and has no proteins
the ____________________ carries lymph from peripheral tissues to veins lymphatic vessels carry lymph from peripheral tissues to veins
where are lymphocytes produced lymphocytes are produced in primary lymphoid tissues and organs (the red bone marrow and thymus)
where are lymphocytes activated lymphocytes are activated in secondary lymphoid tissues and organs (tonsils, MALT, lymph nodes, spleen)
where are primary lymphoid tissues red bone marrow and thymus are primary lymphoid tissue
what are secondary lymphoid tissue and organs tonsils, Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid tissue, lymph nodes, and spleen
what is the lymphatic function of the primary lymphoid tissue to produce lymphocytes
what part of the body carries interstitial fluid from the peripheral tissues back to the venous system the lymphatic vessels carry interstitial fluid from peripheral tissues to venous system
what is lymph. lymph is interstitial fluid that has entered the lymphatic vessels
name the four ways lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries 1) lymph capillaries are closed at one end, 2) lymph capillaries have larger luminal diameters, 3) lymph capillaries have thinner walls, 4) lymph capillaries have flat/irregular outline in sectional view
what are lacteals lacteals are specialized lymphatic capillaries in the small intestines
what is the purpose of lacteals lacteals transport lipids from the digestive tract
lymphatic (vessels/capillaries) join together to form lymphatic trunks lymphatic vessels form lymphatic trunks
how many lymphatic trunks are in the body and what are their names there are two (2) lymphatic trunks in the body and they are called the thoracic duct and the Right Lymphatic duct
where does the thoracic duct start the thoracic duct starts at the cisterna chyli
where does the thoracic duct empty lymph into the thoracic duct empties into the left subclavian vein
where does the right lymphatic duct empty lymph into empties into the right subclavian vein
when does lymphedema usually occur lymphedema occurs when there is a blockage of lymph drainage
what is lymphhedema lymphedema is severe swelling caused by a blockage in a lymph vessel
how does lymphedema affect the immune system lymphedema affects the immune system functions
most lymphocytes are (stored/circulating) most lymphocytes are STORED
about how many (in percent) are circulating about 20-40 percent is circulating
where are germinal centers located? germinal centers are located in lymphoid nodules
what occurs in Germinal Centers germinal centers contain dividing lymphocytes
where are the 5 tonsils located pharyngeal (adenoid) tonsil, twp palatine tonsils, and two lingual tonsils
what would you call inflammation of the tonsils tonsillitis is the inflammation of the tonsils
which tonsils are usually the tonsils that have tonsilitis usually the palatine tonsils get tonsillitis
what does MALT stand for Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue
where is MALT mostly associated with what other system MALT is mostly associated with the digestive system
where are aggregated lymphoid nodules located aggregated lymphoid nodules are clustered deep to intestinal epithelial lining
what are aggregated lymphoid nodules mostly associated with aggregated lymphoid nodules are part of MALT
the MALT organ, _________________ contains a mass of fused lymphoid nodules appendix contains lymphoid nodules
where do blood vessels and nerves reach the lymph node nerves and blood vessels reach the lymph node at the hilum
(afferent/efferent) lymphatics carry lymph from TO the lymph node afferent lymphatics carry blood to the lymph node
(afferent/efferent) lymphatics carry blood AWAY from the lymph node efferent carry blood away from the lymph node
where doe efferent lymphatics leave the lymph node efferent lymphatics leave the lymph node at the hilum
what is in the lymph node cortex B cells and germinal centers
what is area of the lymph node is dominated by T cells paracortex is dominated by T cells
what are the two major functions of the lymph nodes 1) purify lymph prior to returning to blood circulation, 2) antigens released due to infection
what organ removes 99% of antigens lymph nodes remove 99 % of antigens
the lymph nodes in what areas of the body will swell in response to infection groin, axillae, and base ov neck
what is lymphadenopathy chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph nodes
generally speaking, lymphadenopathy is a symptom of what two things 1) infections, or 2) certain cancers
what is located in the mediastinum and atrophies after puberty the thymus is located in the mediastinum and atrophies after puberty
how does the atrophy of the thymus affect the immune system thymus atrophy can diminish the effectiveness of the immune system
what is a hormone that is produced by the thymus thymosin is produced by the thymus
what is the function of thymosin thymosin promotes the development and maturation of T Cells
what are the three functions of the spleen 1) refomes abnormal blood cells and other abnormal components of blood, 2) stores iron from recycled RBC's, and 3) initiates immune responses of T and B Cells
what is a splenectomy the removal of a severely ruptured spleen
what is the ability to resist and defend against infections organisms and other damaging substances immunity is the ability to resist and defend against infections organisms and other damaging substances
what is resistance resistance is the ability to maintain immunity
the body's reaction to infectious agents and other abnormal substances is ____________________________ immune response is the body's reaction to infectious agents
what are the two types of defenses 1) innate (nonspecific) defenses, and 2) Adaptive (Specific) defenses
(innate/adaptive) defenses always works the same way no matter what the pathogen innate defenses always reacts the same way
(innate/adaptive) defenses protects against specific pathogens and always depends on activities of lymphocytes adaptive defenses works against specific pathogens and depends on specific types of lymphocytes
of the two types of defenses which one develops after exposure to environmental hazards adaptive (specific) develops after exposure to environmental hazards
adaptive defenses provide two types of immune responses, what are they Humoral immunity and cellular immunity are both part of the adaptive immunity
what is lymphocyte production called lymphocytopoiesis is the process of lymphocyte production
where does lymphocytopoiesis occur (name the tissues in order of T Cells) Red Bone marrow, Thymus, and Peripheral lymphoid tissues
lymphocytopoiesis starts with the division of a ________________________ cell in the ____________________________ lymphocytopoiesis starts with the division of a HEMATOBLAST in the RED BONE MARROW
when a lymphoid stem cells stays in the red bone marrow helps to develop in the lymphoid stem cells develop stromal cells help lymphoid stem cells develop in the red bone marrow
lymphoid stem cells that stay in the red bone marrow produce either ____________________ or _______________________ lymphoid cells that stay in the red bone marrow produce either NATURAL KILLER CELLS or B LYMPHOCYTES
what helps B Cells differentiate with exposure to __________________ interleukin-7
when a lymphoid stem cell migrates to the thymus , mature in an environment that is in the (presence/absence) of blood lymphoid stem cells mature in the ABSENCE of blood in the thymus
when do T Cells in the Thymus differentiate T Cells differentiate with exposure to Thymosin Hormones
which of the immune defenses cannot distinguish one pathogen from another innate defenses cannot distinguish from one pathogen to another
physical barriers, phagocytes, immune surveillance and interferons are all examples of what type of immune defenses physical barriers, phagocytes, immune surveillance and interferons are all examples of INNATE DEFENSES
Complement are (innate/adaptive) defenses complements are INNATE defenses
inflammation is part of the (innate/adaptive) defenses inflammation is an INNATE defense
fever is an example of what type of immune defense fever is an example of INNATE defense
list some examples of physical barriers that help prevent pathogens from entering the body skin, hair, epithelium of the GI and urinary tracts, secretions
(microphages/macrophages/both) are all phagocytes that are part of the innate defenses both microphages and macrophages are phagocytic
what form of innate defenses engulf pathogens then destroy them with lysosomal enzymes phagocytes engulf pathogens and destroy them with lysosomal activity
______________________ bind to pathogens so that other cells can destroy it phagocytes bind to pathogens
_________________________ release toxic chemicals into interstitial fluid phagocytes release toxic chemicals into interstitial fluids
Immune surveillance is carried out by _____________________________ natural killer cells participate with immune surveillance
once a natural killer is activated, how does it kill a pathogen 1) adhere to abnormal cells, 2) Golgi Apparatus realigns and produces vesicles containing perforins, 3) release perforins by exocytosis, 4) performins form pores in plasma membrane of abnormal cell causing lysis
what chemical is released by natural killers to help lysis abnormal cells perforins
what is tumor specific antigens tumor specific antigens are located on the cell membranes of cancer cells
what is immunological escape the ability of some cancers cells to avoid detection of natural killer cells
how do natural killer cells kill viruses an infected cell can produce abnormal proteins on the membrane allowing them to be easily identifiable by the NK Cells
_____________________ are small proteins that trigger the production of antiviral proteins and block replication in the body cells interferons are small proteins that trigger production of anti viral protiens
interferons are a type of ____________________ interferons are a type of CYTOKINES
what are Cytokines cytokines are chemical messengers that are released by tissue cells for immune response
Created by: kandriot