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medivl jhist 9 grade

Medival Jhistory ninth grade first semester

Define Medieval Period of decline in culture and arts
Who had a medieval ages and who had a middle ages. Christians had Medieval ages, Jews had Middle Ages
Define Antiquity Polytheism: worshiping many gods the Greeks and Romans
When was the Medieval Ages for the Jews and for the Non-Jews and why? General: 5th-15th century (5th:Roman Decline, 15th: Italian renaissance) Jewish: 7th-15th (7th: rise of Islam 15th: Spanish Expulsion) Spanish Expulsion changed demographics.
When did Mohammad live (century) 6th -7th centuries
Where where the Jewish centers under the Islamic rule? How did they effect the Islamic religion? Yavneh + Babylon Some Jews lived in the Arabian Peninsula because they followed The queen of Sheba in the time of shlomo. They were merchants and traveled a lot. that is how Mohammad got some of his stories for the Koran. he was also a merchant.
What are the Five pillars of Islam? 1. Profession of Faith- vow to believe in Mohammad and Allah 2. Prayer- Five times a day (dawn mid morning, noon, evening, night) 3.Charity- 2.5% of yearly income 4.Fasting- Ramadan fast all month 5.Pilgrimage- To mecca if possible (Hajj)
What are the Five Pillars of Judiasm? What are the differences and simalarities between these and those of Islam? Why are they so similar/ 1. Shema- professing faith in one god 2. Tefillah- 3 times a day 3. Tzedakah- Maaser 10% of yearly income 4. Fasting- Yom Kipppur 5. Aliyah laregel- Shlosha Rigalim (Islam is a daughter faith of Judaism)
Tell me Mohammad's life Story He was a merchant and belived that all the christian god and the Jewish god were one. They were just given different books because they were different people. He thought that the Muslims deserved their own book. Had a vision that god told him the koran.
Tell me Mohammad's life Story part two Koran-there is one god. the bible and Torah are true. All Jewish and Christian prophets are true prophets. No one wanted to convert. But Medina invited him to be their ruler. He conquered up till Spain and converted all polytheistic.
Tell me Mohammad's life Story part three He then died. reason that he hates Jews is because though he said they have a good religion they refused to convert. So his successor bound them to the pact of Umar which basically made them know that muslims are better than them- dont practice in public.
o After his death, there was competition for power and a successor to him.
o 2 yrs after Muhammad’s death, Caliph Umar stepped in, conquered, and was moderately successful.
People of the book: 1. Jews, old testament 2. Christians, new testament
Dhimmis: were considered protected (their life, property and ability to worship),if they paid their poll tax
 The Muslims believed in the old testament but their Koran had not been accepted yet.
 Umaya Caliphate established Umaya dynasty which lasted 100 yrs (650-750).  Capital in Damascus, Syria.
Goals of Umaya CAliphate Goal: 2 internationalize Islam and spread it. In 711, they conquered Spain, their only conquest in Europe.o Soon, Umaya’s could not stay in Mid. East bc Abasids too over. There4, they left, and continued developing Arabic culture.
how did the umaya caliphat develope arabic culture How? 1. Grammar: of the Koran. 2. Translation: Began translating classic Greek philosophy into Arabic.All of this led to the GOLDEN AGE OF SPAIN.
Geonim: 8th-11th Century. 2 sets of Geonim: 1) Bavel 2) Eretz Yisroel
Reash Galuta Every community had own governer that would answer to Persian Empire, all headed by their own self-appointed leader, the Resh Geluta (head exilarch).R.G. had to have descended from Dovid Hamelech.
 He got respect due to this bc Muslims also followed our bible and therefore believed that Dovid was a prophet.
o R.G. authority was recognized by Muslim Caliph, so when Jews were under Muslim rule, they copied it, too.
o R.G. had to collect taxes, make sure community was following the Pact of Umar, and assign and judes and beit din.
o When the Abbasids moved the capital to Baghdad, the power of the R.G. lessened
o Jews appointed R.G. but Caliph made final choice
o The way he was treated symbolizes:
 Royalty (gold, silver, fine clothes, etc): shows they respected him, especially bc of his ancestry.
 Marriage (canopy at appointment and 7 brachot for his appointment same as Sheva Brachot after wedding.)
 How does that connect to his job?
R.G. is “marrying” the Jews, taking care of them the way a husband cares for his wife. Provides protection, ensure paying of taxes, etc.
Jewish Cermonies:
o Jews allowed to show off wealth and their religion
 Which is against Pact of Umar
 Where did the wealth come from? Trade, which the Jews participated in.
 Eventually needed actual $ and banks.
Wealthy Jewish business men joined in and became prominent figures in the community.
2 most prominent learning centers (not there anymore)
o Sura
 Which was greater most of the time, but then declined and was inferior to…
o Pumbedita
o Heads of these two Yeshivot came to be known as “Rosh Yeshiva Geon Yaakov” = “The Rosh Yeshiva of the Pride of Yaakov”.
 To become Geon you had to be learned, but also sport leadership qualities. Most came from the same families bc the good genes ran in their families.
o How were the two Yeshivot set up?
Like Sanhedrin, with 70 students ( 7 rows of 10) before the Geon.
 First row: Roshei Kalah, or Aloofim = very scholarly, top students.
 Second row: Also learned, but not on same level.
 2 Months a year were designated for learning.
 They were Adar and Elul, called Yerchai Kalah.
Why those months?
Elul: right b4 harvest, Adar: right b4 next planting season begins.
 What happened during Yerchai Kalah?
400 men would come, sit behind the initial 70, waiting to be included someday in the 70, bc they hadn’t made the cut.
How do they get a spot? Someone dies.
They would listen to the discussions on Gemara, bc the Geonims purpose was to spread the Talmud Bavli.
At the end of the Yerchai Kalah, they would assign the next mesechta to be read over the next five months, whenever the Roshei Kalah got home from farming. Then during the Yerchai Kalah they would discuss it.
As one Amora put it, “The Amorim created A Talmud, the Geonim made it THE Talmud.”
 Sho’tim: Shealot and Teshuvot (Q&A).
 Geonim were famous for their responses bc
a. they were the best source in the world
b. no printing presses around then, so no one could copy the Gemara.
 When ppl sent Qs, they sent donations, used sometimes for student stipens.
 The Geonim got 10, 000 questions over those 3 centuries.
 Most famous Q asked: “What gives Geonim authority to answer Qs?”
A: By Rav Shrira Geon: Traced Geonim all the way back to the time of Moshe, which was important bc this enlightened us to some Geonim that we never would have known of otherwise.
 Geonim’s influence spread through these.
Used chain/ web format by spreading students around to spread questions so that eventually the Q would get to Sura or Pumb.
Also sent messengers from the 70 to give Shiurim in other places (Ex: Spain).
Geonim secular responsibilites (despite religious leaders, and the sep. of church and state):
o All the Jewish communities in Bavel were part of one rishut, totaling three, over which it was they’re responsibility to watch.
1.Geon from Pumb.
2.Geon from Sura
3.Resh Geluta
o How exactly did they look over them?
1.Appointed Av Beit Din, judge, in every community in their empire.
1.Imposed equal taxes – used to fund salaries of judges, Geonim, and R.G. ( this was the 2nd tax ppl got: Caliph assigned R.G. to do tax over e/1).
o Those three heads shared more responsibilities, so later there was controversy.
 R.G. was originally most powerful, for he had been around longer. But then the Geonims power increased and trumped the R.G.’s minimal power of just Bavel by their power worldwide.
Last important Geon:
Rav Sa’adia Geon: AKA: Rasag
Lived 882-942 (9th and 10th century, mostly 10th)
Born: Egypt, moved to Eretz Yisroel in 912, then in 921 moved to Bavel.
o Why would he leave Usrael for bavel?
 Learning in Bavel better than Eretz Yisroel.
o As soon as Rasag moved to Eretz Yisroel became R.G. almost immediently, in Pumb.
 Pumb. was at the time the lesser Yeshiva
 When he got job, there was complication w/ calendar between Geonei Bavel and Geonei Yisroel. Rasag wrote letter to Geonei Yisroel to prove that Geonei Bavel were correct in their calc., and demonstrated their superiority over Geoni Yisroel, and it was
In 928, Geon of Sura died. R.G. and Geon of Pumb. got together to appoint new Geon…to restore Sura back to former glory, for it had declined after his death. They chose Rasag, in 928, (that’s where he got the gimmel = Rav Sa’adia GEON). No one else had
o Rasag was first exception to the rule that Geon only comes from wealthy Babylonian families – bc he came from Egypt, and had not been learning in Yeshiva of Sura of Pumb. all his life. He had only come 7 yrs earlier. He succeeded in bringing Sura bac
 Issue with will came up. Would have given R.G. lot of money if won. Rasag did not agree and did not sign the necessary signature sheet. R.G. upset bc 1. lost $ and 2. his power was tested. R.G. told Rasag that he was not Geon / appointed new Geon. R
 Now community of Bavel was split. 1) for R.G. 2) for Rasag.
 But then after 2 years, R.G. was able to convince Caliph (through bribery) to fire and exile the Rasag for 5 yrs. (932-937).
 That’s when Rasag wrote books of commentary.
Books on Tanach, Hebrew language, poems (zmirot), Halacha, polemics (religious arguments against other religions and sects of your religion), and Jewish Philosophy. *
After 5 years, well-respected, tactful member of the community told R.G. to grow up. R.G. understood, invited Rasag back, and they made up. So much so that after R.G. died, Rasag adopted his son and raised him. Rasag had got old job, but didn’t reall
*The Rasag did not write Polemics for no reason. They were in response to 3 major threats to traditional rabbinic Judaism.
1. Karaites: Religious sect of Judaism that did not follow torah she’baal pe. (BIG THREAT TO JUDAISM – still exist today just not threat anymore). (ex of only listening to b’chtav: it says you can’t light a fire on Shabbat – they sit in the dark bc they
o How could Rasag prove them wrong?
 Write polemics against them
 Use b’chtav to prove them wrong (bc they didn’t believe in ba’al pe after all, so couldn’t prove them wrong w/that).
2.Decrease in knowledge of Hebrew:
o Why threat?
 Won’t understand Torah or sefarim
 Cant even double check halachot that Rabbis tell them, might think it’s bogus, can’t check, and be led to not believe it.
2.Influence of Arabic Culture:
o Language allows reading of Koran…which leads to understanding/ possibly believing
o All that grammar and philosophical stuff is intriguing, and Judaism didn’t have it yet.
o Judaism = ancient. Arabic = new!
o Rationalism: a philosophy Arabs were taking upon themselves that if you cant explain and rationalize a conclusion you’ve met, it must be false.
 This does not work for Judaism, bc Judaism is steeped in faith.
Notable books he wrote:
o 1. Tafsir: translation in Aramaic of torah, usually a commentary.
 Why?
 To show Jews the Torah was more beautiful than the Koran, which would help them fight the Karaites, for they would have an undrstanding of the Torah.
o 2. The Book of Beliefs and Opinions:
 showed that religion and reason go hand in hand…everything we believe in is through reason.
 Fundamental work of Jewish philosophy, bc proved Judaism can be on high intellectual level as well, perhaps more spiritual then Muslims.
Kara - as in read – believed in just b’chtav and not ba’al pe.
Created in 8th century by man named Anan ben David.
o What was inspiration?
o His brother was chosen to be R.G. instead of him so he had a bone to pick…appointed himself R.G., thrown in jail, where he was inspired to start a movement, for personal reasons.
o Karaites claimed that Rabbis made up Torah She Ba’al Pe.
Created by: rachelif95