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WGU schools&society

Criterion-referenced test do not compare students to each other but compare the students' performance to a criterion level of mastery.determine individual performance in comparision;Items most students should answer correctly;
Criterion-referenced test Compare past with present performance;What skill the studet should be working on;That a students isn't doing well in the subject.
Norm-referenced test Compares child's performance to others in same age/grade.Might be compared w/national group.Survey testing.Broad area of achievement.Whether a student is eligible for accelerated programs.
Norm -referenced test IQ test.Compares the performance of a given student against the performance of a sample of his/her peers.Test items may be biased against students from culturally diverse backgrounds.
Individual Test clarify the special education and related services the child needs to progress
Group Tests Information about how a child performs in relations to others of the same age and grade. Do not identify an individual student’s pattern of strengths and needs
Curriculum-based assessments Developed by school staff to examine the progress a child has made in learning the specific materials the teacher has presented to the class.Dermining whether learning is taking place, but they must never be used to determine eligibility for services.
Standardized Tests Developed by experts.Used with large populations of students & are administered according to specific standards. Can evaluate what a child has already learned (achievement), or predict what a child may be capable of doing in the future (aptitude).
Standardized Achievement Tests Appropriate Uses 1. Informing parents about their children’s relative achievements2. Informing teachers about their students’ relative achievements3. Selecting students for special programs4. Allocating supplemental resources
Standardized Achievement Tests Misuses 1. Evaluating schools 2. Evaluating teachers 3. Promoting or grading students 4. Making classroom instructional decisions 5.Accomodation can't be matched with IEP
Formative Assessment and Diagnostic Assessment Formative: Monitors learning progress during instructionDiagnostic: Diagnoses learning difficulties during instruction
Summative assessment assesses achievement at the end of instruction. Comprehensive measure of achievement.
Formative evaluation How well are you doing and how can you do better? Determines whether additional instruction is needed.Continuous feedback tothe teacher.Test smaller units.Monitor progress.Informal.
Summative evaluation How well did you do? Final evaluations of student's achievement of an objective.Comprehensive measure of achievement
Constructed Response supply answer,ie:essays-support argument,difficulty scoring,depends on writing ability.Requires student to support an argument with multiple lines of reasoning.
Selected Response Multiple chioce,true/fals;common on standardized tests,limited to present options
Woodcock Reading Mastery Exam a norm-referenced battery of tests which provides various measures of reading achievement for K-adult.
Basic achievement skills individual screener grade 1-adult
Peabody Individual Achievement Test K-adult
Reflection in action interaction with a 'live' problem as it unfolds. The capacity to reflect in action assumes that the problem-solver has the capacity to surface their 'knowing in action', that is, the hidden or tacit knowledge which we use to deal with particular tasks
Reflection on action describes the process of reflection which takes place after the event where the practitioner makes explicit and evaluates the theories of action used to solve a problem
Eraut's criticism on reflection sometimes decisions need to made quickly, and there is not time for reflection
Dewey on reflection reflective thinking consisted of two parts: a state of doubt and a search to resolve that doubt.
Purpose of reflection for educator To provide for the possibility of learning through experience. Express ideas to students with greater clarity. Communicate more efficiently in the classroom. Improves effectiveness and helps us develop as professionals.
Semantic disorder poor vocabulary
Cerebral palsy abnormal, involuntary, and uncoordinated motor movements.Poor balance, some are unable to sit without support, feed themselves, chew ood, speak.Sometimes left or right side of the body is affected, or legs more than arms, or all four limbs are involved.
Tourette's syndrome Associated with autism. peculiar behaviors such as: uncontrollable motor movements (tics) andinnapropriate vocalizations such as barking, profanity, and other.
Usher sydrome leading cause of deaf-blindness after childhood. Results in deafness, progressive vision loss, in some mental retardation.
Oppositional defiant disorder a pattern of negativistic, hostile, disobedient, and defiant behaviors. Symptoms include loss of temper, arguing with and defying adults, irritability, vindictiveness, swearing,blaming others for mistakes and misbehavior,low self-esteem
Intellectual disorder Average IQ with bellow average ability to listen, speak, read, write, spell or do math.
Down Syndrome Upper slant of the eyes, short stature, flat nose,somewhat smaller ears and nose, enlarged tongue, short fingers, reduced muscle tone, a single crease across the palm of the hand.
Language disorder Mispronounces sounds and words, omits plural and past tense endings, omits auxiliary verbs ore prepositions, immature vocab, difficulty comprehending new words and concepts, immature sentence structure, poorly formed questions, difficulty following dir.
Phonological Disorder abnormal organization of the phonologic system or significant deficit in speach production. DIfficulty organizing speach sounds into patterns
Apraxia of speech neurological phonic disorder that results from impairment of the capacity to select, program, or to execute the positioning of the speech muscles to produce speech sounds.
Autism Etiology Unknown underlying pathologic mechanism. Usually heterogeneous disorders based on the existence or absence of specific characteristics.Primary suspected factors are:genetic along with abnormal brain chemistry.
Autism Characteristics associated with autism: Asperger Syndrome (clumsiness,sensury deficits),ADHD,Obsesive compulsive disorder,tic disorders,affective disorders,anxiety disorders,sleep disorders.People have social&commnication problems,not able to listen until pencils lined
Anxiety Disorder Associated with authism; motor tics often accompanied by vocal outburst ot innapropriate behavior
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Causes & Characteristics Etiology:unknown;possible neurological foundations (imbalance in brain chem.deficiency of dopamine),hereditary,& environmental condition.Innatention, Hyperactivity, Impulsivity: Interrupting, moving excessively, easily distracted
Learning Disability Etiology Central nervous system damage and dysfunction which can be=Prenatal:smoking,Drugs,Alcohol;Perinatal:Prolonged delivery, Anoxia,Prematurity, Trauma by medical instruments; Postnatal:Strokes,Concussions,Meningitis, High fever,Head injury.ALso genetic &bioch
Learning Disability Characteristics Reading deficits (dyslexia).Problem in mathematics.Difficulty in the development of language skills primarily focused in one of three components of language. Handwriting, spelling, lack metacognition,social problems,spoken language (expression), memory
Emotional/Behavioral Disturbance Ethiology Biological and environmental factors. Powerty.Meltreatment.Both bilogical and environmental.Biological factors are mostly influential for several disorders such as:authism,bipolar,schizophrenia,social phobia,obsesive compulsive & tourette's.
Emotional or Behavioral disorder IQ's in the low average range.Common childhood disorder. Social interactment.Fear, worry, or uneasiness, anxiety disorder.Changes in emotion.Anxiety, emotions.
Mental retardation Etiology Fetal alcohol sydrom leading cause.Prenatal(chromosomal-down syndrome,FragileX;metabolic-Tay-Sach;infections);Perinatal(gestational-low weight,premature;neonatal-birth trauma); Postnatal(infections,enviro,brain damage).Central nervous system dysfunction.
Mental Retardation Characteristics limitations in intellectual functioning & adaptive behavior.Attention deficit,low reading & math comprehension, memory,lack of motivation,generalization,attention spam.Speach and language difficulties. Impaired cognitive functioning;memory
Communication disorder Characteristics cannot recall sequence of ideas presented orally, deficit in grammar, syntax, fluency, vocab.
Speech and Language Impairments (disorder) ethiology Congenital(existing at birth),Developmental(emerge during school years),Acquired(result of injury).Etiologies:congenital malformations,prenatal injury,tumors,nervouse/muscular system problem,X-ray exposure,viruses,drugs,toxins,natal rubela,brain injury.
Speach and Language disorder Characteristics EXPRESSIVE:limited vocab;incorrect gramar;excessive repetition of information;dificulty of formulating questions.RECEPTIVE:following oral directions;understanding humor;comprehending complex sentences;responding to questions appropriately
Benefits of early intervention for students with learning disability Enhanced ability to use words and sounds correctly,Improved social behavior skills, Better pre-academic skills, Improved attention skills
What must be included in IEP (individualized education program) ~A statement of the student's current level of performance~A statement exempting the student from state assessment programs~List of type and amount of related services the school will provide~A transition plan~Annual goals~Participation with nondisabled
Least Restrictive Environment Disabled students should be educated in a setting that most closely approximates the general educatin classroom and meets the unique needs of the indiviual.Must have access to gen. curriculum.Shall have equal opportunity to participate in non aca. activit
Integrated Environment in conjonction with least restrictive environment Social and instructional inclusion of students with disabilities in classrooms with typically developing peers.
Cognitive DevelopmentPiaget Knowledge comes from action. 2 stages.Birth-2 yrs sensorimotor stage ~ 2-7 Preoperatinal Stage ~7-11 Concrete Operational Stage ~11-adult Formal operational stage
Constructivism a view of cognitive development as a process in which children actively build systems of meaning and understanding or reality through their experiences. They construct knowledge by continually assimilating & accomodating new information.
Behaviorism Behaviorists believe actions that are rewarded will be repeated. They believe learning occurs through the pairing of a stimulus and a reward.They also believe that negative consequences have the potential to stop undesirable behavior
Motor Development od preschool children 2 yrs:walk with wide stance. Can climb,push,pull,run,hang,reach w/two hands 3 yrs:reach one hand,stackblock,walk smooth 4 yrs:vary rhythm of running,jump,endurance,draw shapes 5yrs:walk balance beam,stand on one foot,may tie shoes, use utensils correctly
Birth - 2 years Development Brain tripples in weight. Neurons branch and grow into dense cennective networks and send messages faster and more efficiently.Infant progresses from own world to experiment on the worl mentally. Understand permanence.By age to short sentences.
2 - 6 years Development Brain developing faster then pther parts,attaining 90% of its adult weight.Ideas are illogical.Language developsrapidly.Adjust communication to audience.Stage of life initiative-guilt vs will.Imagination.
7-11 years Development Grow slowly.Increased strength and heart and lung capacity.Develop logic.Enjoy word-play.Peer group becoming important.
12-18 years development The growth that occurs during these years usually proceeds from the extremities to the torso & may be uneven.Incereases in hormonal levels. Males generaly become taller than females & develop deeper voices.
Growth Spurt Girls by the start of fifth grade.Boys by the start of sixth grade.
Puberty Girls Some girls begin puberty before other begin 9-14.Generaly begins by age 11.Pubic hair growth begins at 9-10 and reaches adult pattern at 13-14. Height growth (late 4th grade)9 1/2 - 14 1/2 and peeks at age 12(fifth grade).
Puberty Boys Puberty begins 12-17. Adult size genitals 16-17. Pubic hair growth begins at 12 and reaches adult pattern at 15-16. Height growth 11-17 and peeks at age 14.
Marcia's Identity Statues Foreclosure, Identity Diffusion, Moratorium, Identity Achievement
Foreclosure prematurely establishes an identity based on parents choices rather than the adolescent choices. An identity crisis has not been experienced
Identity Diffusion The adolescent has few commitments to goals and values, and seems apathetic about finding and identity.If an identity crisis has been experienced, it has not been resolved.
Moratorium The adolescent exeriments with goals and values by abandoning some of those set by parents and society. No definite commitments have been made to occupations or ideologies. The adolescent is inthe modst of an identity crisis.
Identity Achievement The adolescent establishes an identity in which clear decisions about occupations and ideologies have been consciously made.
Behavioral Learning Theory focuses onthe ways in which pleasurable or unpleasant consequences of behavior change indicidual's behavior over time.Tries to discover principles of behavior that applies to all living.
Social Learning Theory focuses on the effects of thought on action and action of thought.Modeling and observational learning.Attention,Retetion,Reproduction,Motivation phase.Use vicarious learning,Self regulated learning,Self reinforcement.
Cognitive Learning Theory emphasizes unobservable mental process that people use to learn and remember new information or skill.
Modalities preferred perceptual models that influence how students learn.Visually, Auditorally, Kinesthetic/Tactile (learn by doing)
Constructivist View of Learning Learners must individually discover and transform information.Checking new info against old rules & revising the rules.Top down instruction (begin w/compex problems).Extensive use of cooperative learning.Students will comprehend by talking with each other
Teacher using constructivist View of Learning Students work individualy with manipulatives.Students work in groups on small parts of a projec to complete larger one.Learner aquires expertise by interacting with an expert.Self regulated learners knowing how to brak problems into simple steps.Scaffoldi
Humanism individual growth and development,offers techniques to think in creative ways.learning occurs primarily by reflecting on personal experience.Inductive discussion,individual or group projects,action planning,selfassessment,visualization,guided reflection
View of Humansitic learning Attribution theory{Success and Failure, Locus of Controland Self Efficacy,Motivation and Self Regulated learning}
Kohlberg In his theory of moral reasoning, hypothetical situations that require a person to consider calues of right and wrong.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning I)Preconventional Level:Punishment and obedience orientation;Instrumental Relativist OrientationII)ConventionalLevel:Good boy/girlorientation;Law & order orientationIII)Postconventional Level:Social contract orientation;Universal ethical principle ori
Critical thinking Identifying misleading advertisements; weighing competing evidence; and identifying assumptions or falacies in arguments.(Attached is a recipe that resulted in a cake which fell when removed from the oven.Review the recipe & determine why the cake fell.)
Inductive reasoning arguing from previous observation(s).Goes from the specific to the general.Begins with specific info & measure & ends up with general conclusion.It's more open ended (especially at the begining)
Deductive Reasoning argument is clearly from the general (the law of gravity) to the specific (this kick).Goes from the general to the specific.Starts with theory about topic~hypothesis~observation~confirmation.It is mainly concern with testing or confirming the hypotheses.
Problem Solving The applicatoin of knowledge and skills to achieve certain goals.(Discuss the function of physical setting in 2 novels studied.What is the relationship between events and the locations.Signs reproduction)
Protestantism The bible is error free ans salvation is essential.Teaching creationism.Liberal:the right of individuals to determine for themselves what is true in religion.Authority of christian experience and religious life.Conservative:salvation is essential.
Evangelical "born again Christians"believe in Jesus as son of God. Homosexuality goes agains the values.Place emphasis on morality and responsible behavior.Christian schools.Reject Darwin.
Catholicism Have Pope.Have developed largest private educational system in the world.
Judaism oldest religion.There is no Jewish race.High-quality instruction in religious and academic studies.
Islam to surrender to the will or law of God.One of the fastest growing religions.Practitioners are Muslims.Writing:Quaran(exact words of God) and Koran.Relevations through Muhammed
Jihad meaning "struggle""effort: or "striving" in the way of God.
Mormonism Believe in relevation to moder day prophets
Budhism Founded on the teachings of Sidhartha Guatama.Teaches secret to elnlightenment away from the extremes.
Primary Sources(Secretary notes,Inagural address,debate between 2 people) use original, first-hand accounts as building blocks to create stories from the past.1st evidence of something happening.Diaries,Letters,Photos,Art,Maps,Video & Film,Sound recordings,Interview, Newspapers,Magazines,Published first-hand accounts or stories
Secondary Sources(CD-ROM,analysis of land rights in1850,article magazine) created after primary sources and they often use or talk about primary sources.Can give additional opinions on a past event or on a primary source.Have many copies,found in libraries, schools or homes.History textbooks,Biographies,Published stories,ect.
Descriptive Research is a survey or interview.It is aimed at identifing and gathering detailed infomration about something of interest.accurately describe current or past phenomena.
Descriptive Research Questions What is the absentee rate for particular lectures? What is the pass rate for particular courses? What is the dropout rate on particular degree programmes? What effect does a particularly quality audit process have on teacher morale.
Analytical research takes descriptive research one stage further by seeking to explain the reasons behind a particular occurrence by discovering causal relationships. Case studies;Observation;Historical analysis;Attitude surveys;Statistical surveys
Analytical Research Questions Why is there a preponderance of female students on 1st level teacher training programmes? What factors might account for the high drop-our rate on a particular degree programme?
Predictive Research seeks to forecast the likelihood of particular phenomena occurring in given circumstances.Is nearly always quantitative because it involves identifying and/or defining measurable variables which can be manipulated to cause measurable effects.
Predictive Research Questions Will changing the start time achieve a higher attendance rate at our lectures?Will introducing anonymous marking reduce the gender imbalance in the achievement of 1st class degrees?Will increasing the weighting for course work encourage students to learn?
Inductive Reasoning using observation to formulate an idea or theory.
Deductive Reasoning taking a known idea or theory and applying it to a situation (often with the intention of testing whether it is true).
Academy secondary school focused on practical needs of colonial America.Now academies are not bound by the National curriculum and can offer qualifications from within the National Framework and have sponsors.
Head Start A federal compensatory education program designed to help 3-5 yr old disadvantaged children enter school ready to learn
Progressive Education belief that education must be based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people.provide not just reading and drill, but also real-world experiences and activities that center on the real life.
Assimilation A process of socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms abd patterns of behavior.Has never worked.Attempt to make minority groups "similar" to dominant group
Junior High Schools Were originaly designed in the early 1900s to provide a unique academic curriculum for early adolescent youth.Grades7,8,9.
Middle Schools Typically grades 6-8.Designed to help students through the rapid social,emotional, and intellectual changes characteristics of early adolescence.
Separate but Equal A policy of segregating minorities in education,transport,housing and other.Different curricula in school, teaching methods,teachers,and resources.
Character Education an approach to developing morality that suggests moral values and positive character traits,such as honesty and citizenship,shout be emphisized,taught,and rewarded.
Latin Gramar School A college prep school established in Boston in response to puritan parents seekingg education for their sons.originally designed to help boys prepare for the ministry or,later,for a career in law.
Title 1 A federal compensatory education program that funds supplemental education services for low-income students
Common School movement A historical attempt to make education available to all children
Magnet Schools Public schools that provide innovative or specialized programs that attempt to attract students from all parts of a district.
Compensatory education programs Government attempts to create more equal educational opportunities for disadvantaged youth.Prevent learning problems before they occur. Head Start and Title 1
War on Powerty A general term for federal programs designed to eradicate poverty during the 1960s.
Comprehensive high school A secondary school that attempts to meet the needs of all students by housing them together and providing curricular options (e.g. vocational or college prep programs) geared toward a variety of student ability levels and interest.
Normal Schools 2 year institutions developed in the early 1800s to prepare prospective elementary teachers.
English Classical Schools A free secondary school designed to meet the needs of boys not planning to attend college
Old Deluder Satan Act Early colonial law designed to create scripture literate citizens who would thwart Satan's trickery.
Dame Schools instructionoffered by individual female teachers, usually in their homes.
New Harmony Founded as an experiment in communal life to eliminate class distinctions in society through practical education.
Chatauqua Institution Begun in NY as a Sunday school teachers' camp;designed to teach in a fun and relaxing atmosphere;founders belived that learning was a lie-long process
High School Emphasize normal everyday learning rther than classical curriculum;provided a laboratory for teacher training model classroom
Motivation enhancement Set learning goals;Communicate positive expectations;Arouse interest;Rewards and frequent feedback;Relate the assignemtn to real life;Show the benefits with finishing the assignement;Promote the value of accomplishing the assignement
Graphic Program to make informational flyers; Creating a floor plan of the school
Spreadsheet Charting experimental data; Drawing a diagram for an experiment
Macro Contains buttons for quick access to frequently used tasks
Intrinsic Motivation Rewards that are contingent on the quality of performance increase the motivation.Not tangible before hand rewards without regard of success decrease motivation.{Students care about the topic.Students set reading goals in a supportive environment}
Extrinsic Motivation rewards for learning that are not inherent in the learned material.{Praise to grades to recognition t prizes or rewards}.
Increase Intrinsic Motivation Arouse interest in the topic; Maintain curiosity; Use a variety of interesting presentation modes;Help students set theor own goals.
Principles for Extrinsic Motivation Expressing clear expectations;Providing clear,immediate,and frequent feedback;Increase the value of motivators
Student academic learning time Preventing late starts and early finishes;Preventing interruptions;Handling routine procedures;Minimizig time on discipline;Teaching engaging lessons;Maintaining momentum,smoothness,&group focus of instruction;Managing transitions;Withiness;Overlapping;
Teacher-Centered Instruction Teachers specify goals,present content to be learned,and then direct lerning activities.Teachers present the information & monitor learning process.
Learner-Centered Instruction teachers guide learners toward an understanding of the topic they study, rather than telling or lecturing.
Buckley Amendment A federal act that makes school records open and accessible to students and their parents
Paul Hill Public education goals universal education, focused on learning, economic,social, and political opportunity for all, community, citizenship, and tolerance.
Ellwood P. Cubberley The most prominent of the early twentieth-century school historians.described the expansion of state power as the foundation of democratic education.Schools should be run by professionals.Supported state control of democratic systems.
Lloyd P. Jorgenson Prevealed school prejudical side of common school movement.Public school would be an agent of moral and social redemption"&that this redemption would be the result of ‘‘non-sectarian’’ religiousinstruction.
Robert Breckenridge Was anti-Catholic. His writing influenced no public funding for Catholic schools.
Bernard Bailyn Described the 20th century educators as missionaries.
Theodore Sizer pointed out that the age of the academy extended from the Revolution to the Civil War
Henry Barnard reported more than six thousand academiesin 1850, spread across the land, in every state and territory (Sizer believes that this figure was conservative).
Carl Kaestle observed, the parents in rural communities controlled ‘‘what textbooks their children would use. . . what subjects would be taught, who the teacher would be, and how long school would be in session.’’
Horace Mann President of the United Federation of Teachers. White-collar walkouts.
John Pestalozzi Criticized authoritarian educational practices that stifled students' playfulness and natural curiousity and recommended that teachers use concrete experiences to help students learn.
Jean Jackques Rousseau Viewed children as innately good and argued that teachers should provide children with opportunitiesfor exploration and experimentation
John Locke Emphasized the importance of firsthand experinces in helping children learn about the world.
John Amos Comenius Questioned the effectivness of memorization and recitation,emphasizing instead the need to base teaching on children's interests and needs
Catherine Beecher Education for Women
Esther Thelen and Linda Smith most influential and convincing evidence in support that “thought grows from action and that activity is the engine of change”. Everyone has different set of strategies. Solutions are innate,and all infants have to learn control.
Horace Man Advocate for universal public education. Nation’s 1st compulsory school attendance.Massachusetts. Advocate for universal public education.The most eloquent spokesman for public education.Promote the development of tax-supported public school
John Joseph Hughes Hughes took the offensive in public speeches, sermons and writings during the 1840s, demanding public funds for Catholic schools. Was not successful
Atkinson Expectancy Model Motivation (m)=Perceived probability of success (Ps) x Incentive value of success (Is)
Booker Washington the founder and first head of the Tuskegee Institute and a leading advocate for the educational and economic improvement of African Americans. Teach the values of hard work, persistence and self-discipline
Carl Rogers His passion for education that engaged with the whole person and with their experiences; for learning that combines the logical and intuitive, the intellect and feelings.
John Hughes Hughes took the offensive in public speeches, sermons and writings during the 1840s, demanding public funds for Catholic schools. Was not successful
ESTHER THELEN (developmental psychologist) and LINDA SMITH “thought grows from action and that activity is the engine of change”.Infant to toddler stage research-everyone has different set of strategies.Solutions are innate,&all infants have to learn control.
Stanley Hall Founder of the American Journal of Psychology.
Progressive Philosophies learning &encourage students to use a wide variety of activities, they use wider variety of materials for research;encourage students to learn by discovery.The curriculum is flexible and is based on student needs.Teachers are facilitators of
Reasons for assessing Clarifying learning outcomes.Providing short term goals to work toward.Feedback about learning progress.Learning difficulties.Selecting future learning.Identifying next instructional goal.
Reflection purposes Enpower learners to take ownership of ideas. Help individuals self-correct behaviors and ideas.Noticing and making sense (surface learnign).Making meaning;Working with meaning;Transformative learning
Why use multiple measures when assessing students Measurement of perfomance and knowledge require different testing procedures.
Test Bias Give false info about the status of learnig.Are unfair ro some students.Tend to corrupt teaching,teaching more toward preparation for testing.Focus on skills that are easily tested & away from higher-order thinking & creativity.
Reliability accuracy which skills&knowledge are measured.It refferes to the consistency of scores & other results.It is strictly a statistical concept.Coefficients are determined by:Interrater method;Test-re-test method;Equivalent-forms method (need coef. alpha)
Validity -(skills & knowledge) Most important quality when constructing assessment.Deals w/relevance.It's the quality of interpretation of results rather not the assessment.Involves&is strongest when:considerations of content;construct;assessment-criterion relationship;&consequences.
What is the most critical problem that can result from standardized achievement test accomodation Accomodation methods cannot be matched with a student's IEP
Fair and Ethical testng procedures Provide non-English students the opportunity to take mathematics & science exams in their native language.Grade essays without regard for who wrote the essay.Research scores from individual minority populations to determine whether scores are comparable
Misuses of state mandated standardized achievement test scores Compare scores on the exam to in class quizzes.Assign students to remedial ot accelerated tracks based solely on their scores.Compute class grades using standardized test scores.
Teacher discussion effecting behavioral view of learing Reinforcers increase the tendency to a specific behavior.Generalization results in discrimination of behavior.Cues indicate which behaviors are acceptable or not.
Benefits of erly intervention for students with learnign disability enhanced ability to use words and sounds correctly.Improved social behavior skills.Better pre-academic skills.Improved attention skills.
IDEA for free education components Modified curriculum if neede.Private tutoring during school hours.Supplementary aids and services if neede.Education in the least restrictive environment.Transition services from school to pot-school activities.
Integrated Environment Social and instructional inclusion of students with disabilities in classrooms with typically-developing peers.
Academic chalenges for English Language Learners The subject is unfamiliar & they can't understand.Their opportunities to develop the language skills necessary to academic success are limited.Teachersoften do not understand how students' cultural traditions impact school performance.
Academic language Effective learning depends on students working through a self paced instructional program.The teacher has a helpful attitude toward learning.
Communication with colleagues Demonstrate genuine interest in other's work.Be careful never to take one another for granted.Try to attend meetings together frequently.Develop a common vocab for communication.
Promoting positive cooperation betweenhome and school Contact parents at their own request.Provide feedback through calls.Request parents to help in class.
If parent objects to material in student's file notify the parent of the right hearing if amending the record is not warranted.
Paul T Hill "What is Public about Public Education" Presenting political opportunity for students.Encouraging greater tolerance in students.Creating economic opportunity for students.Establishing universal education for students.
Methods for identifying abilities in students Observe student inaction on an assigned task.Analyze grade book for attendance rates.View student work portfolios from previous year.Study trends in past achievement tests.
Agressive behavior between students Arrange the environment to minimize risk.Remain calm,Be aware of own body language.Provide time for problem solving
Promoting learning Provide supportive climate.Provide a visual representation of progress.Help students to find value in their work.
Routines and behavior Smoother transitions.More efficient work habits.
Benefits of routines Demonstrates and encourages orderly behavior from students.Leads to organization and on-task behavior.Saves time for the teacher to do administrative tasks
How to motivate students Relate the assignment to real life situations.Show the benefits associated with finishing the assignment.Promote the value of accompllishing the assignment.Emphasize learning goals.Communicate positive expectations.Arouse interest.Incentives.Feedback
Student refusing to do assignment Speak calmly and unemotionaly in a flat,controlled voice.Move slowly toward the student with respectful distance.Allow few min for appropriate action.Redirect the student by repeating expected behavior.
Modalities Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned. Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information. Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities.
IEP Individualized Education Plan must have Current academic performance.A statement of measurable goals/benchmarks.Progress toward the goals.Sppecial ed & related services to be provided.Explanation why not attend education program.Assessments modifications.Begining date &duration.Transition at 16
Family Functions (support) Affection,Self-esteem,Economics,Daily care,Socialization,Recreation,Education
Lower status and disadvantaged familes students Less consistent upbringing.Poor access to healthcare-lead poisoning.Uncorrected vision, hearing problems.More likely to demand good behavior and obediance.
Social Structure Political-economic system that includes distribution of economic resources,cultural & social dominance, and political power.
Signs of increased moral development Engagement in cooperative activities. Student sees no justification in breaking the rules. Student obeys rules in spite of peer preasure.
Socialization support assistance from schools and community organizations to provide training and opportunities for peer to peer interactions
Recreational/Leisure support Network of organizations that creates or finds extracurricular activities in which disbaled students can participate.
Daily Care Support Respite provider or plan to intermittently relieve parents of ongoing care needs
Economic support Medicaid, Social Security, or therapeutic services provided by school employees rather than private therapist
Edicational Support responsive team, including parents, that creates and implements a meaningful academic intervention plan.
Example of Social learnign theory A student works through a math problem & teacher explains steps to the class during the proces. Student works through a problem and explains steps to the class.Including student with high motivation & student with strong aca skills in each group.
Example of Humanistic view of learning Learners learn to discover principles for themselves.Construct knowledge from own experiences by assimilating.Student centered instruction.Begin with complex.Discovery learning.Self-regulated learners.Scaffolding.Students generate questions.Question autho
Student with signs of neglect Recognize limitations of teacher's role in a neglect situation. Report neglect to the authorities. Don't judge [arents or caregivers. Become more educated about the manifestation of neglect.
Reflection Empower learners to take ownership of ideas.Help individuals self-correct behaviors & ideas. Noticing~Making sense~Making meaning~Transformative learning
Created by: katerina4444
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To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

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