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World History Finals

Finals review

TermDefinition
John Locke A philosopher who believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. Locke criticized absolute monarchy and favored the idea of self-gov. Believes all people are born free and equal, with natural rights- life, liberty, and property.
Natural Rights The right to life, liberty, and property(security)
3rd Estate(% and Membership) The 3rd Estate included the bourgeoisie, urban and lower class, and peasant farmers. The 3rd Estate made up 97%-98% of France in 1787.
Bourgeoisie The middle class- bankers, factory owners, merchants, professionals, and skilled artisans. Well educated and believed strongly in the Enlightenment ideals. Some were as rich as the nobles but still paid high taxes and lacked privileges.
Estates-General An assembly of representatives from all three estates.
French Revolution Slogan “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
Locke’s Social Contract States that man is reasonable. The government has to protect the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. People have the right to choose a new government if they don’t protect the natural rights. People created a government.
Thomas Hobbes He believed all humans were selfish and wicked. He thought that without governments to keep order there would be “war… of every man against every man,” and life would be “solitary- poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 1 He saved the French Republic form a mob of royalists.
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 2 He won a series of victories against Austria and the kingdom of Sardinia.
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 3 He became the First Consul of the new government group.
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 4 He set up an efficient method of tax collection.
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 5 He established a national banking system.
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 6 He set up lycees.
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 7 Re-established the Catholic Church.
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 8 He created the Napoleonic Code.
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 9 He became Emperor of France.
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 10 He got Austria and Prussia to sign peace treaties.
Napoleon’s Accomplishments 11 He gained control over Spain, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and a number of German kingdoms in Central Europe.
Rome’s Greatest Legacy Their laws, religion, and customs. Roman law representative government (republic, assembly, and senate).
French National Assembly Made of 3rd Estate delegates, this group passes laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
Scorched-Earth Policy The practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy can’t live off the land.
Magna Carta A document constituting a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges. (England) After the kind was defeated in a battle against his nobles the got offered some rights. This is the basis for challenging the king that he doesn’t hold all of the power.
Reign of Terror The period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilian Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed.
Napoleon’s Traits Ambitious, ruthless, unconventional, creative, bold. (Not timid or humble).
Old Regime The political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution.
Emigres A person who leaves his native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution. They supported the king.
Sans-Culottes In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages.
Jacobin Club A radical political organization, where most of the people involved in the governmental changes in September 1792 were members of. This is where the radicals met, discuss, and plan.
Enclosure Movement One of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers.
Crop Rotation The system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land.
Agricultural Revolution The idea of crop rotation and the invention of new machines to improve harvesting and seeding methods. Landowners started buying land from farmers. As a result small farmers were forced to become tenant farmers and new agricultural methods were tried.
1st Industry The textile industry was the first to be industrialized.
Wealth of Nations A book written by Adam Smith that defended the idea of a free economy, law of competition and the law of supply and demand.
Karl Marx German journalist, introduced a radical type of socialism, Marxism. Co-wrote the communist manifesto. Thinks human societies have always been divided into warring classes, and the Industrial Revolution enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor.
Communism An economic system in which all means of production
Urbanization The growth of cities and the migration of people into them.
Declaration of Independence A statement of the reasons for the American colonies’ break with Britain, approved by the Second Continental Congress in 1776.
Source of Energy (Early Industrial Rev.) The main sources of energy were water, coal, and steam.
Why Did The French Revolution Start? The king wanted money so he raised taxes on the 3rd estate. The 3rd estate challenge the king and his position. Crop failures also caused problems. France also helped the U.S. fight in a war which caused them to become bankrupt.
Short Term Effects of Social Classes Factory workers were overworked and underpaid, overseers and skilled workers rose to lower middle class, factory owners and merchants formed upper middle class, upper class resented those in middle class who became wealthier than they were.
Short Term Effects of Working Conditions Created many new jobs, factories were dirty, unsafe, and dangerous, factory bosses exercised harsh discipline.
Short Term Effects of the Size of Cities Factories brought job seekers to cities, urban areas doubled, tripled, or quadrupled in size, many cities specialized in certain industries.
Short Term Effects of Living conditions Cities lacked sanitary codes or building controls, housing water, and social services were scarce, epidemics swept through the city.
Long Term Effects of Working Conditions Higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions.
Long Term Effects of Social Classes Standard of living generally rose.
Long Term Effects of the Size of Cities Suburbs grew as people fled crowded cities.
Long Term Effects of Living Conditions Housing, diet, and clothing improved.
Laissez-Faire Policy The idea that government shouldn’t interfere with or regulate industries and businesses.
Robespierre A Jacobin leader and leader of the C.P.S in 1793. Suggested his use of terror enabled French citizens to remain true to the ideals of the revolution; Dictator. Rule=Reign of Terror. Ordered the death of about 40k people. Arrested and executed July 28 1794
Union Movement in England Group of workers who are in labor associations. Started=1800s. Engaged in collective bargaining & negotiations with their employers. Unions can strike. Several unions joined together to form the AFL (American Federation of Labor).
Free Market System A market unregulated by the government; Adam Smith supported this.
Colonies A land controlled by another nation. A country or a territory governed internally y a foreign power.
Protectorates A country or a territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power. Still has a local government running the place.
Menelik II The reason Ethiopia remained untouched by the foreigners. Emperor of Ethiopia in 1889.
Raj British rule after India came under the British crown during the reign of Queen Victoria.
Sepoy Mutiny An 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India.
South African Imperialism Referencing northern and southern Indonesia. The imperialism goes up.
Why Europeans Couldn’t Explore Africa? The couldn’t navigate the African Rivers also the African armies held them back for many years.
Suez Canal A human-made waterway, which was opened in 1869, connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. If you control this you have access to the world (Britain controlled it).
The British Empire Everywhere. The sun never set on the British Empire.
India’s Greatest Value as a Colony Raw materials and a huge market for business.
Treaty of Kanagawa A treaty made in 1854 were Japan opened two ports at which U.S. ships could take on supplies.
Meiji Era The period of Japanese history from 1867 to 1912, during which the country was ruled by Emperor Mutsuhito.
Boer War A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of Russia’s government in November 1917.
Sino-Japanese War War between China and Japan over trade with Korea. They originally had until China broke their hands off agreement.
Russo-Japanese War A 1904-1905 conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries’ efforts to dominate Manchuria and Korea.
Extraterritorial Rights An exemption of foreign residents from the laws of a country.
The Communist Manifesto A 23-paged pamphlet outlining the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It argues that human societies have always been divided into warring classes.
Taiping Rebellion A movement that began by Hong Xiuquan whome him and his followers tried to build a “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” where there would be no one who lived in poverty.
Boxer Rebellion A 1900 revolt in China, aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
1910 Mexican Revolution Started by Madero challenging Diaz. The revolution destroyed the old government and army of dictator Diaz, and changed the country's economic system. Government recognized the labor unions and peasants organizations, and promoted their organization, also
Open Door Policy A policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Opium War A conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain’s opium trade in China.
WWI Propaganda One-sided information designed to persuade, to keep up morale and support for the war. The used propaganda to demonize the Germans, get people to sign up for the army, and keep support for the war.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand The heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. He was murdered by a Serbian nationalist while visiting Sarajevo.
Causes of WWI The immediate cause of WWI is the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Causes of WWI Nationalism (Unifying force, love of your country, history and culture) Rivalries for materials and markets. It was a unifying force people feel very passionate. It was also a dividing force
Causes of WWI Imperialism Germany pushes for more. Britain has most of the world and doesn’t have much because they were a newer country. They felt that they deserved more.
Causes of WWI Militarism Every boy wanted to be a soldier and every girl wanted to be a soldier (ideal standard).
Causes of WWI Alliances Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary Triple Entente- Russia, France, and Britain.
Schlieffen Plan Germany’s military plan at the outbreak of World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia.
English Civil War A conflict, lasting from 1642 to 1649,in which Puritan supporters of Parliament battled supporters of England’s monarchy. King signed a document for the petition of right for money but doesn’t do it then he needs more money so the citizens get angry.
Divine Right The idea that monarchs are God’s representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Porfirid Diaz Harsh ruler, ousted the pres. then took control. He gave land to people he liked and had people who opposed him die. He didn’t care about liberty only wants order and progress. People, tired of him so they started a Revolution and he left office in 1911.
Glorious Revolution Parliament picked their leaders. The bloodless overthrow of the English king James II who wants a Catholic Britain, but the citizens don’t want that anymore so replace him with William and Mary.
‘Powder Keg’ of Europe The Balkan’s were known as the “Powder Keg” of Europe
Restoration The period of Charles II’s rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell’s government. They restore the king position instead of a dictator.
Constitutional Monarchy A system of governing in which the ruler’s power is limited by law.
Created by: kai0304