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Unit 4 Vocabulary

modules 16-21

Sensation Process by which sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies
Perception Organizing and interpreting sensory information to recognize objects and events
Bottom-up Processing Analysis which begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain's sensory integration
Top-down Processing Information processing beginning with higher-level mental processes
Selective Attention Focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Inattentional Blindness Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
Change Blindness Failing to notice changes in the environment
Absolute Threshold The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
Subliminal Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Difference Threshold (JND) Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time.
Weber's Law Principle that in order to be perceived different, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant percent
Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Transduction Conversion of one form of energy to another; 5 senses --> neural impulses
Wavelength and Hue Distance from peak of one wave to the peak of the next; dimension of color determined by wavelength
Intensity Amount of energy in a light or sound wave, interpreted as brightness or loudness by amplitude
Accommodation Process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus on near or far objects
Rods and Cones Retinal receptors that detect grayscale, used for twilight vision; Retinal receptors that detect color, used in well-lit conditions
Feature Detectors Nerve cells in the brain that respond so shape/angle/movement of a stimulus
Parallel Processing Processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously
Audition Sense or act of hearing
Frequency and Pitch Number of complete wavelengths in a given time period; Tone's highness or lowness depending on frequency
Place Theory Theory that links pitch with the place where the cochlea is stimulated
Frequency Theory Theory that rate of nervous impulses traveling up auditory nerve matches frequency of a tone
Conduction Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by damage to mechanical system which conducts soundwaves
Sensorineural Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by damage to cochlea's receptor cells or auditory nerves
Cochlear Implant Device to convert sounds into electrical signals and stimulate auditory nerve through electrodes
Gate-control Therapy Theory that spinal cord contains "gate" to block or allow pain signals to pass
Sensory Interaction Principle that one sense may influence another, like when smell influences taste
Gestalt An organized whole. emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces into meaningful wholes
Grouping Perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
Phi Phenomenon Illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink in quick succession
Extrasensory Perception (ESP) Claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input
Created by: landejer000



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