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I-1 through I-10

Social Studies

United States becomes urban (I-1) Society
Many people migrated from rural to urban for work (I-1) Society
New immigrants caused cultural and economic tensions over American citizenship (I-1) Society
Cities that once were filled with buildings that were no more than a few stories tall were not dominated by skyscrapers and suspension bridges (I-1) Society
Iron ore mined in the US increased from 7 million in 1880 to 27 million in 1900 (I-1) Mechanization
Nearly all steel was made from the Bessemer process (I-1) Mechanization
Henry Ford created the assembly line. (like a conveyor belt of workers) (I-1) Mechanization
Scientists developed an early power tool called the 'Longwall Cutter' to cut coal out of the Earth (I-1) Mechanization
In 1829, George Stephenson, an English engineer, developed the first public railroad, which used a steam locomotive for power (I-1) Transportation
The cost of constructing the trains needed to be minimal but the train needs to be stable so like in Europe, the United States adopted Stephenson's gauge (I-1) Transportation
George Westinghouse created an air brake to automatically stop a train (I-1) Transportation
Railroads become higher in demand because of multiple industries including meat industries calling for quick transportation (I-1) Transportation
The population grew causing the workforce to have a plentiful number of immigrant workers (I-2) Workforce: What Changes Occurred?
The immigrants were affected from the growing workforce. They were provided offerings of incentives (later, after more immigrants came, jobs became scarce in the west) (I-2) Workforce: Who Did the Changes Affect?
More railroads were constructed as well as the United States urbanized. Immigrants didn't have much money leading to homelessness. Farms had extra hands tending to good crops (I-2) Workforce: What Were the Effects of the Changes?
Businesses combined to make dominant companies. A theory was used called vertical integration. This means one company controls all stages in the production of one product (I-2) Business Organizations: What Changes Occured?
The workers were affected because they needed to be paid. Also, bankers were affected, like J.P. Morgan, who handed out loans to pay people and equipment (I-2) Business Organizations: Who Did the Changes Affect?
A popular used system called a bureaucracy was born. By selling stocks and bonds, one could be very rich or risk everything. United States investment culture rose (I-2) Business Organizations: What Were the Effects of the Changes?
Many businesses created advertising campaigns. Name brands became a thing because salesclerks promoted brand-name goods. People took credit for making railroads in rural areas to promote sales (I-2) Advertising and Sales: What Changes Occured?
People, shoppers, used more/bought more of what was being advertised because of persuasion. The same deal goes for sales. People's money was used (I-2) Advertising and Sales: Who Did the Changes Affect?
Businesses grew as did prices. The market expanded. People could now get their goods delivered. Lastly, the money-back guarantee was invented to insure buyers happiness (I-2) Advertising and Sales: What Were the Effects of the Change?
A business leader who becomes wealthy by dishonest means (Rockefeller) (I-5) Robber Baron
People who admired entrepreneur's and were admired for their business tactics (Carnegie) (I-5) Captain of Industry
Is someone who took financial risk in organizing and managing a business (I-5) Entrepreneur
Shares or part ownership in a company. If you owned stock in a corporation you are considered a shareholder (I-5) Stock
Payment made to shareholders (I-5) Dividends
It is a business owned by many investors who buy part of the company through shares of stock Corporation
Question 1: Why would someone buy stock (invest) in a corporation? (I-5) By selling a stock, a corporation can raise large amounts of capital (money).
Question 2: Why would someone buy stock (invest) in a corporation? (I-5) A corporation has a special legal status and continues after the founder dies Banks are more likely to lend money to corporations.
Question 3: Why would someone buy stock (invest) in a corporation? (I-5) A corporation limits risks to its investors who do not have to pay off the corporation's debts.
Question 4: Why would someone buy stock (invest) in a corporation? (I-5) Less risks for investors: sell shares at any time, only lose the money they put into it.
Question 5: Why would someone buy stock (invest) in a corporation? (I-5) In the late 1800's few laws regulated corporations. This led to the growth of a few GIANT corporations that dominated American industry --OIL and STEEL.
A theory that states that government stays out of business (I-5) Laissez-Faire
Was in the steel business, he built a steel plant near Pittsburgh, PA. He tried to beat his competition by making the cheapest and best products (I-5) Andrew Carnegie
Carnegie acquired the companies that provided the equipment and services needed. Carnegie bought iron coal mines, warehouses, ore ships and railroads to gain control of all part of the business of making and selling steel. (I-5) Vertical Integration (Carnegie) Part 1
In 1900, when all his assets were totaled, he produced 1/3 of the nation's steel (I-5) Vertical Integration (Carnegie) Part 2
He was in the oil business. He decided the best way to make money was to put his competitors out of business. Founded the Standard Oil Company. He became one of the richest persons in the world, gaining the reputation as a ruthless robber baron (I-5) John D. Rockefeller
A company that wiles out its competitors and controls the industry (I-5) Monopoly
A legal body created to hold stock in many companies, often in the same industry (I-5) Trust
Led to a monopoly in oil business -- Standard Oil controlled 95% of the oil industry in America (I-5) Standard Oil Trust
The combining of competing firms into one corporation. The corporation produced and used its own tank cars, pipelines and even its own wooden barrels -- made from the forests owned by Standard Oil (I-5) Part 1 Horizontal Integration (Rockefeller) Part 1
Standard Oil became one of the most famous corporation empires of the day (I-5) Part 2 Horizontal Integration (Rockefeller) Part 2
He bought Carnegie Steel Company for $450 million in 1901. He was a banker. Morgan combined the Carnegie Steel Company with other businesses to form the United States Steel Company (US Steel) (I-5) Part 1 J. P. Morgan Part 1
Consolidated much of the railroad industry to improve and dominate it (I-5) Part 2 J. P. Morgan Part 2
Is a person who give large sums of money to charitable causes. Carnegie gave money to Universities and to towns to build libraries (>$350 Million!!) (I-5) Philanthropist
Tremendous wealth in the late 1800's Writers (Horatio Alger, Mark Twain, Charles Warner) coined the phrase Gilded Age. To gild is to decorate in gold leaf, popular in this era (I-5) Part 1 Gilded Age Part 1
There were problems. Just as gold leaf could hide lesser valued item beneath it, the wealth of a few, hid the problems of the society, including corrupt politics and widespread poverty (I-5) Part 2 Gilded Age Part 2
The inventions which helped agriculture improve included the mechanical reaper, the steel plow, and the combine. These farm machinery engendered less need for hands on work. (I-4) Part 1 Inventions Improving Agriculture and How Part 1
Instead, horses and fewer people worked on the farm and gradually gained a surplus of food. The steel plow was created so plows would no longer have sticking debris (I-4) Part 2 Inventions Improving Agriculture and How Part 2
This is an overall improvement since people had lots of food and less hands on work. Unfortunately some of our ‘agriculture culture’ was lost because of these changes (I-4) Part 3 Inventions Improving Agriculture and How Part 3
Communication methods improved due to American inventions by allowing for long distance messages to be received faster. The telegraph is for long distance communication (I-4) Part 1 Improvement of Communication From American Inventions Part 1
It was used for a long time with a communication system known as Morse Code. Then, the typewriter was invented. People now used the popular QWERTY format of keys to type letters to send to people instead of their non-readable script (I-4) Part 2 Improvement of Communication From American Inventions Part 2
Lastly, the telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. This device is used to communicate over long distances (I-4) Part 3 Improvement of Communication From American Inventions Part 3
Towards the beginning of its existence, there were only one sided calls, then two sided calls, then the telephone could communicate not just a few miles away but hundreds (I-4) Part 4 Improvement of Communication From American Inventions Part 4
Electricity transformed American society by bringing light and urbanization to the cities and towns. Electricity powered lights so humans could see in the dark without a candle. This light bulb was invented by Thomas A. Edison (I-4) Part 1 American Society Transformed by Electricity Part 1
Then, soon after other things were being lit up like buildings, televisions, etc. Also, new kitchen appliances could be engendered as well as heating systems. On the downside, electric bills soon came into play (I-4) Part 2 American Society Transformed by Electricity Part 2
Industrialization impacted the environment and society in a negative way. Smoke stacks burning coal flooded into facilities all over including factories, buildings, trains, and other coal burning industries (I-4) Part 1 Industrialization Impacting the Environment Part 1
This caused the environment to slowly suffer. Society was also being hurt because their immune systems couldn’t take some damage. People died from lung diseases and infections as well as just common diseases and infections (I-4) Part 2 Industrialization Impacting the Environment Part 2
Son of Scottish immigrants (I-6) Carnegie
Formed a trust (I-6) Rockefeller
Dominated industry (I-6) Both Carnegie and Rockefeller
Sold his business to J. P. Morgan (I-6) Carnegie
Horizontal integration (I-6) Rockefeller
Worked with the railroad when young (I-6) Carnegie
Steel plant (I-6) Carnegie
Bessemer Process (I-6) Carnegie
Standard Oil (I-6) Rockefeller
Vertical integration (I-6) Carnegie
Philanthropist (I-6) Both Carnegie and Rockefeller
Oil refineries (I-6) Rockefeller
Born in Richford, NY 1839 (I-6) Rockefeller
Started simply Both Carnegie and Rockefeller
The Bessemer Process: _____________________.This is under the category: Steel (I-7) Changes Iron to Steel
_____ is stronger. Also quicker and easier to make with Bessemer Process (I-7) Steel
Because it was easier to make, there was a large supply of _____. This forced the price to drop (I-7) Steel
_____ was used for buildings (skyscrapers), railroads, trains, bridges, nails, tubes, wires, plows, etc... (I-7) Steel
Silliman discovers hot to refine ___ into fuel (I-7) Oil
Kerosene was used in lamps, heat and cooking. Kerosene is a type of ___ (I-7) Oil
Ed Drake pumped ___ from the ground (oil well), Nicknamed "Drake Folly" it pumped 20 barrels a day (I-7) Oil
Wildcatters were ___ prospectors. Oil
Nicolas Otto invents the gas powered engine. This relates to ___ (I-7) Oil
Cars and planes were developed. This relates to ___ (I-7) OIl
Use of steel made stronger & longer lines of _________ tracks (I-7) Railroads
_________ bcamed more reliable, quicker and after methods of transportation (I-7) Railroads
Westinghouse and Woods invent air brakes for _________ (I-7) Railroads
Sleeper Cars by Pullman made _________(rail) travel more comfortable (I-7) Railroads
Refer- Refrigerator Cars allowed goods to be moved longer and greater distances on _________ (I-7) Railroads
Efficiency and speed improve dropping prices and improving profits for merchants. This relates to _________ (I-7) Railroads
Larger companies bought smaller _________ companies (I-7) Railroads
Thomas Edison invents the usable electric light bulb in his Research Lab in Menlo Parks, NJ. Construction of many of Edison's inventions Schenectady, NY!! (I-7) Electricity
Tesla discovered AC current allowing electricity to be transported over great distances (I-7) Electricity
Alexander Graham Bell invents the Telephone. New York, Boston, and Chicago Lines develop (I-7) Electricity
Electricity was used for light, heat power, transportation and communication (I-7) Electricity
Electricity that doesn't travel far (I-7) Direct Current
Electricity that travels far (I-7) Alternating Current
I believe the Central Pacific Railroad was so important because it tracked from California to Nebraska, nearly 690 miles, when the railroads connected in Utah creating a transcontinental railroad (I-8) Central Pacific Railroad was important
I believe the majority of people living in California felt alright about public money being used to fund a railroad. (pt.2) Also, the people would eventually get their money back from the 20 million the Stanfords donated to their University. (I-8) Part 1 Californian People's Money Opinion Part 1
I think this because the people would use this railroad for the service it provided, ultimately giving the people what they want (I-8) Part 2 Californian People's Money Opinion Part 2
Lock doors so the workers cannot come to work -- no work, no pay. Management, Legal (I-9) Lockout
Making public aware of treatment by showing signs stating information. Labor, Legal Picketing
Court order to stop/go back to working. Management, Legal (I-9) Injunction
Contract that promises not to join a union. Will not be hired unless signed. Management, Illegal (I-9) Yellow-Dog Contract
Labels on products that tell they were union made. Labor Legal (I-9) Union Label
When there is a strike, people who work the jobs of the people striking (aka -- Scab). Management, Legal (I-9) Strikebreaking
Labor and management sit and try to work out details to reach a settlement. Management & Labor, Legal (I-9) Collective Bargaining
Name put on a list if you joined a union other companies would not hire you. Management, Illegal (I-9) Blacklist
Refusal to work until demands are met. Labor, Legal (I-9) STRIKE
Refusal to buy goods or services. Used to protest against something. Labor, Legal (I-9) Boycott
Organization of workers that try to get better pay and better working conditions (I-9) UNION
Factory workers in most industries worked __ or more hours a day, 6 days a week (I-9) 12
Steel mills often demanded that employees work _ days a week (I-9) 7
_________ did not get vacations, sick leave, unemployment compensation, or compensation for injuries (I-9) Employees
In 1882, an average of 675 laborers were killed in work related accidents each ____ (I-9) Week
The death rate for railroad workers was one in ___ (I-9) 300
The average working family could not make enough money to survive unless ________ in the family held a job (I-9) Everyone
Between 1890 and 1910, the number of working women doubled from 4 million to ___ million (I-9) 8.5
20% of all boys and 10% of all girls from the age of ___________ held full time jobs that required them to work from dawn to dusk (I-9) 5 to age 15
The jobs held by women and children typically paid the ______, often as little as 27 cents per 14 hour day (I-9) Lowest
In 1889, women earned an average $___ per year (I-9) 269
In 1889, men earned an average $___ per year (I-9) 498
In 1890, _______________ earned approximately $23 million (I-9) Andrew Carnegie
Name 2 causes/reasons that led to the US industrial "explosion" (I-10) Availability of Natural resources and human ingenuity. Railroads linking of cities and growth. Leaders – Carnegie, Rockefeller, JP Morgan, Vanderbilt
What led to a linking of a "National Economy" (I-10) Railroads – Transcontinental RR – Communications (telegraph)
The invention of machines and machine tools allowed the US to challenge what two countries for economic superiority (I-10) Britain, Germany
Why were Carnegie and Rockefeller considered "Robber Barons" (I-10) Accumulated Massive Wealth Ruthlessly. They were also great builders of industry.
The factory workers in the industrial revolution often came from other jobs. Where did some of these factory workers previously work (I-10) Farmers – Immigrants from other countries
Why did many people leave the farms and head into the cities (I-10) To get jobs/economic opportunities
Why would people immigrate to the US as opposed to other countries (I-10) In the US is where Rapid Industrialization and Urbanization is happening. Best option when compared to other countries
How was the labor force divided to combat the unions (I-10) Ethnically – would not sit two people of the same background together…lessened the likelihood of them talking
Where is the control over production and how work is done, shifted to during the Industrial Revolution (I-10) Shifted to MANAGEMENT: From skilled workers to unskilled workers due to automation and technological advancements.
As technology allowed for less need of skilled labor, who made up the unskilled labor (I-10) Women/children…unskilled labor was paid less, women and children even less still.
How do women and children's wages compare to those of men workers (I-10) 1/3 to ½ as much due to thought they did not have a family to support
Immigrants took low paying jobs to earn money. Who else had to work to support the family (I-10) Teens/children/married women
What was not present that allowed for child labor to thrive (I-10) There were no child labor laws.
What was the name of the name of the famous Ladies Garment Union (I-10) International Ladies Garment Workers Union
What group of the population was often left out of the unions (I-10) New Immigrants
What was the 1st national labor strike (I-10) 1877 Railroad Strike: response to cut in wages/spread to other cities/federal troops sent in.
What industries experienced huge strikes that were “dramatic” (Hint: 3 industries) (I-10) Garment Textile Steel Railroads
What were the Federal Government views of unions in general and the practice of striking (I-10) Federal Gov’t viewed as illegal. Issued injunctions against strikes
What did the business owners use to combat the unions (I-10) Private detective agencies (Pinkerton’s) Violent outcomes…used military weapons and tactics
The growth of Industry and Cities in America occurred because of a large influx of whom (I-10) IMMIGRANTS…Huge waves of immigrants
Forests, large supply of water and mineral wealth. These are needed to manufacture goods (I-3) Plentiful Natural Resources
Leads to growing need for good & goods. Demand for goods spurs growth of industry (I-3) Growing Population
Supplied labor force to growing industries and many were skilled workers (I-3) High Immigration
Steamboats, canals and railroads to manufactured goods easier and faster (I-3) Improved Transportation
New machine and improved processes helped industries to produce goods more efficiently (I-3) New Inventions
Banks and wealthy people invested in new businesses. Industries used this money to build factories and buy new equipment (I-3) Investment Capital
State and Federal government used tariffs and land grants to help businesses grow (I-3) Government Assistance
Taxes on imported goods from other countries (I-3) Tariffs
“The backbone of industry”(I-3) STEEL
New invention used to make steel. Increased steel production and cut costs (I-3) Bessemer Steel Process
Created by: 24benachel



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