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C&C Unit 1

participant observation a method of study in which anthropologists live with their subjects for a long time, participates as a group of community member, and record their observations
variable a factor that has an influence on the outcome of an experiment of study
kinship a family relationship based on what a culture considers to be a family
institutions established laws, practices, and customs within a society
dysfunctional unable to perform an intended purpose and having a destructive effect
operant conditioning the psychological theory that learning can be programmed by whatever consequences follows a particular behaviour
self actualization Maslow's term for the final stage of human needs, in which a person integrates the self, making the personality whole
enculturation the process by which members of a culture learn and internalize shared ideas, values, and beliefs
assimilationist the outdated view that racial and ethnic minorities would gradually be absorbed into the culture of the majority, through public institutions like schools
cognitive dissonance the theory that people try to avoid conflicts between what they think and what they do
participant observation researcher participates in the group life of subjects, anthropology
natural observation researcher watches the subjects in their natural setting, anthropology & psychology
library research use of documents and previous previous research, anthropology, psychology & sociology
questionnaire handout with questions to determine attitudes and beliefs, sociology & psychology
experiments research in a controlled setting, field or lab, may use a control group and an experimental group & psychology
interview questions asked directly to one person & psychology
case study in depth examination of one case, sociology & psychology
pavlov's classical conditioning stimulus response training, a conditioned stimulus combined with a natural stimulus produces a conditioned/learned response, reward and/or punishment are used to modify behaviours, ex. B.F. Skinner gave rats food pellet if they pushed a bar
dream analysis was used by which psychologists Sigmund Freud-the psychoanalysis theory explains how dreams represent both desires and conflicts, Carl Jung-the jungian dream theory explains how dreams reveal more than they conceal
5 schools of thought in sociology structural-functionalism, neo-marxism, symbolic interactionism, feminist theory, inclusionism
structural-functionalism society works by providing members with material, social, educational and other needs
neo-marxism economic power is the basis of political power and the key to understanding societies
symbolic interactionism the human brain is what intervenes to interpret what we observe
feminist theory most societies value systems are sexist
inclusionism sociologist must look at the ethnic diversity within society by studying the experiences of all ethnic groups and rejecting the urge to judge through the eyes of majority
3 schools of thought in anthropology functionalism, structuralism, cultural materialism
functionalism to understand a culture, it is necessary to investigate the social functions of institutions
structuralism all cultures develop complex rules that are logical structures, based on binary opposites
cultural materialism technological and economic factors are the most important in molding society
3 schools of thought in psychology psychoanalytic theory, behaviourism, learning theory
psychoanalytic theory the unconscious mind can be unblocked through dream analysis, they believe the unconscious mind effects our actions, Freud & Jung
behaviourism by identifying factors that motivate human behaviour, the psychologist can predict and control it, they can treat patients with problem behaviours, B.F. Skinner
learning theory by controlling the way in which humans learn behaviours, society can have a greater influence on their ultimate personalities, Albert Bandura
social change in anthropology invention, discovery, diffusion
invention new products, ideas, and social patterns that affect the way people live ex. portable stereo
discovery finding something that was previously unknown to a culture ex. light
diffusion the spreading of ideas, methods, and tools from one culture to another ex. herbal remedies
social change in psychology the cognitive dissonance theory
cognitive dissonance theory the state of having conflicting thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, you commonly look for cognitive consistency between beliefs ex. you smoke, but you also believe smoking causes cancer
social change in sociology endogenous, exogenous
endogenous influences, coming from within society itself
exogenous influences, coming from another society into this one
Created by: syddj123
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