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US History Quiz #1

What was connecting Europe and the US 30,000 years ago? A land bridge
When did Paleo Indians live? 28,000 years ago
What were Paleo Indians? Nomadic hunters and gatherers who moved in bands
What did Paleo Indians use 11,500 years ago? Stone tipped spears
What was there during the Neolithic Revolution? Cultivation of Land and 7,000 years ago- Crops such as maize, squash, beans, peppers were grown
What were people like before the Neolithic Revolution? Relied on hunting and gathering, nomads lived in small hunting and food-gathering groups, waited for migrating animals to return each year
What were people like after the Neolithic Revolution? Learned how to farm and were able to produce their own food, settled into permanent villages learned to domesticate/tame animals
What were the Advanced Societies? Olmecs in Gulf of Mexico, Mayans in Yucatan Peninsula , Aztecs in Central America
Olmecs Lived from 1300-400 B.C, Agriculture methods included slash/burn, Urban Centers included temples and pyramids
Mayans Peaked in AD300 and AD900, Patch work of city states – not unified in one empire, Astronomy/ Mathematics (zero), First writing System, Intricate rituals
Aztecs Rose to power 13th century, had militaristic conquerors, Tenochtitlan- Capitol City, Population- 100,000 – larger than any European City, Conquered by Cortes
What was the Stagnant Society based on? Feudal ties
What were the majority of people in Medieval Europe? Peasants
What did smaller warring countries do? Divided Linguistically, politically and economically, Lived in small villages, only traded a little
What did Pope Urban II call for in 1095? The Crusades
During the Late Middle Ages, where was there a rise of trade? In Italy, South France, Spain (Mediterranean)
What happened to the Manorial system? It began to break down
What did the rise of the Middle Class lead to? Growth of towns
What happened in 1350? There was a “Rebirth” in Northern Italy
What happened in 1440? Johan Gutenburg invented the printing press
What did nations begin to do? Develop
When nations began to develop, what happened? There was Monarch Consolidating Power, Rivalries let to competition for trade w/ Asia
What were the four G's (motives) of pre-columbian explorers? Glory, God, Gold, Gadgets
How did the Glory motive come about? The renaissance inspired new possibilities for power and prestige
How did the God motive come about? European christians, especially catholics, wanted to stop the spread of Islam and convert non-Christians to the faith
What were Europeans encouraged to do? To spread Christianity or bring missionaries who would focus only on conversions
How did the Gold motive come about? Europeans were looking for vast wealth for themselves and their countries
What were some New Gadgets? Hartman Astrolabe, Better Maps, Mariner’s Compass, Sextant
When did Columbus sail? 1492
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) The pope's line of demarcation to settling conflicts between Spain and Portugal over lands newly discovered by Christopher Columbus and other explorers
Who was involved in the conquering of the Aztecs? Hernan Cortes, Moctezuma II and the Aztecs
Who was Hernan Cortes? A Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that led to the downfall and conquering of the Aztec Empire
Who was Moctezuma II? Aztec emperor of Mexico, most known for his dramatic interaction with the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés.
What happened when Cortes met Moctezuma in 1519 (according to most sources)? Cortes and his men arrived in Mexico in 1519 looking for gold. Once he knew about Cortes' arrival, Moctezuma believed that Cortes was a god because the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl was supposed to return to Mexico in 1519, according to Aztec legend.
What happened when Cortes met Moctezuma in 1519 (according to most sources) cont. ? Cortes looked like this Mexican god. Moctezuma welcomed their "new god" with gifts of gold and other items, but when Cortes marched to the Aztec capital, he took Moctezuma prisoner and held him captive.
Who was involved in the conquering of the Incas? Francisco Pizzaro, Athualpa and the Incas
What was the cycle of conquest and colonization? Explorers, Conquistadores, Missionaries, Permanent Settlers, Official European Colony!
What was the Colombian exchange? ONLINE DEFINITION: "The widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, diseases, and ideas between the Americas, West Africa, and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries."
Positives of the Colombian Exchange Cash crops from U.S --> Europe (i.e. Tomato, Potato, Maize), Trinkets from Europe --> Africa, Cash crops from Africa --> U.S. (i.e. coffee bean, sugar cane), Livestock from Africa --> U.S. (i.e. horses, pigs, cattle)
Negatives of the Colombian Exchange Syphilis from U.S. --> Europe, Guns and Liquor from Africa --> U.S. and many diseases from Africa --> U.S. (i.e. smallpox, whooping cough, typhus, measles, etc.)
What was the colonial class system Top: Peninsulares, Second Section: Creoles, Third Sections: Mestizos and Mulattos, Bottom Section ; Native Indians and Black Slaves
What is an Encomienda? A grant from the Spanish Government allowing a colonist to demand forced labor from slaves/natives in the area
Council of the Indies The highest-ranking governing body of the Spanish colonies. Approved all important acts in colonies, and acted as a last resort in civil lawsuits in colonies.
What was Viceroy? An important ruler who exercised authority in colonies on behalf of the Council of the Indies Gov't
New Spain Viceroyalty
Peru Viceroyalty
Bartolome de Las Casas A Roman Catholic priest, attempted to protect enslaved indigenous peoples in America, by converting them to Christianity . However, he ended up not succeeding for he kept finding himself in conflicts with Spanish officials who tried to exploit the natives
Where and when did the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade exist? In Africa, before the coming of the Europeans
Portuguese replaced European slaves with who? Africans
What did the African slaves work on? Sugar cane & sugar plantations
What was brought by the Spanish in 1518? First boatload of African slaves
How many enslaved Africans were exported to other countries? 275,000
Between 16c & 19c, about how many Africans were shipped to the Americas? 10 million
What happened to Native Populations during European expansion? They were ravaged by disease
What did the influx of gold and silver into Europe create? Created an inflationary economic climate. [“Price Revolution”]
What was introduced across the continents during the Colombian Exchange? New products
What else did European expansion do? It deepened colonial rivalries
Before Columbus’ explored America in 1492, North America was dominated by whom? North American Indians
The Plains Indians Hunters & gathers but became mobile hunters after the Spanish introduced the horse into North America
The Eastern Woodlands Indians Lived in small farming communities & were the first contacts with British settlers in Virginia & Massachusetts
Exploration led to what? Permanent European colonies
French Colonies Motivations After Champlain’s attempt to find a NW passage through Canada, he founded Québec, The “French crescent” included Canada, the Mississippi River, & New Orleans , Missionaries converted Native Americans to Catholicism
Like Spain, the French gov’t encouraged what? Converting Native Americans & establishing missions
French Colonies: Government Strictly controlled by royal governors
French Colonies: Economy Most French colonists profited from the fur trade, small-scale farming, or lumbering
French Colonies: Society Because the French needed furs, they were the most friendly with the local Native Americans
Dutch Colonies Motivations The Dutch established New Amsterdam as a trade center
Dutch Colonies: Political, Economic and Social To attract settlers, the gov’t allowed anyone to immigrate, As a result, New Amsterdam was one of the most diverse colonies in North America
1570s – Q. Elizabeth I – concerned by what? By Spain’s increasing power
What did Queen Elizabeth finance and why? Voyages of Martin Frobisher in search of the northwest passage
Tensions were rising between who? Catholic Philip II & Protestant Eliz. I
What happened with the NW passage? Early explorers never found it
Global Warming= what? NW passage
The NW passage was first navigated by whom? Roald Amundsen in 1903-6
What was Francis Drake's job? Privateer who patrolled coast of Spanish America
What else did Francis Drake do? Captured ships, Looted towns, Huge impact on Spanish, Unofficial approval by Queen
What happened in 1588? Spanish had enough
What did King Phillip of Spain do? Dispatched fleet of ships (130)
What happened to the English? Were outnumbered but had smaller faster ships
What was not in Spain’s favor? The weather
Spanish lost most of their ships and... no longer dominated the seas
Created by: MLevy44