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Global 10

Unit 1: Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment

Enlightenment Late 1600's to early 1700's writers and philosophers rejected traditional ideas about government and society Supported belief in human reason wanted more democratic form of government Where: Europe Salon
Scientific Revolution a time period in the 1500's when European scientists began to use reasoning and experimentation to create new ideas
Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1700 french philosopher Famous work: The Social Contract Key Theories: People are naturally good but are corrupted by evils of society social contract- to live in a safe society, people give some rights for the common good
William Wilberforce Born 1759 in England Supporter of Abolition- slave trade and slavery in British colonies 3 days before he died (1833) the slavery Abolition Act was passed
Mary Wollstonecraft born in 1759 in England teacher A Vindication of the Rights of Women founder of the feminist movement inspired Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Enlightened Despots Absolute Monarch who adopted reform s to keep their subjects from revolting Education, healthcare, religious tolerance Example: Catherine the Great- Russia Joseph the Second- Austria
Thomas Hobbes Major exception to other Enlightenment thinkers Major writing- Leviathan Theories: Believed that humans were naturally selfish and greedy Believed that absolute monarchy was necessary to keep people in line
John Locke Most tested Enlightenment thinker famous work: Two Treatises of Government Key Theories Natural lights life, liberty and and land consent of the governed gov gets power from people the governments job is to protect the people's natural rights
Voltaire french philosopher in 1700's Key theories: Freedom of speech, Freedom of religion
Baron De Montesquieu french scholar famous work: The Spirit of Laws Key Theories Separation of powers- the government is separated into 3 branches- executive, legislative and judicial checks and balances- to check and control the power of each branch to prevent abuse
Cesare Beccaria Italian criminologist born 1738 Wrote on crimes and punishments He inspired modern judicial and criminal systems Advocated for- rights of the accused, trial jury, fair and speedy trial, no cruel and unusual punishments
Natural Rights All individuals have the right to life, liberty and land Declaration of Independence
Isaac Newton Field of study: Physics Theory: Laws of gravity- " What goes up must come down
Francis Bacon Field of study: philosophy of science Theory: scientific method
Johannes Kepler Field study: Astronomy and Physics Theory: Planets follow an elliptical orbit around the sun
Galileo Galilei Field of study: Astronomy Theory: Supports the heliocentric theory Made great improvements to the telescope
Rene Descartes Field of study: Mathematics Theory: Advances in algebra and trigonometry stressed human reason
Nicolaus Copernicus Field of study: Astronomy Theory: Heliocentric theory- the solar system was sun centered and all planets orbit the sun disproved the geocentric theory
Created by: mbarkley



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