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HNRS. UNIT 2 2019

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian HNRS HIST Unit 2 Test Flashcards 2019

QuestionAnswer
What does the term "joint - stock company" mean/ refer to? This term refers to a company in which individuals pooled their financial resources in order to invest in business ventures at a lower risk of loss.
What is one (1) example of a "joint - stock company"? One (1) example of this was the Virginia Company.
How did Jamestown govern itself? This Colony did this by electing a 6 - member council to serve as the government. The council selected a president from among these 6 members.
List one (1) reason why the Jamestown Colony failed. One reason for this was because they had chosen a site that had a "terrible water supply". It filled with salt water when the ocean was at low tide.
How did the Powhatan Indians help save Jamestown? This group did this by feeding the colonists because they saw benefit in allowing them to stay so they could trade with them.
What was John Smith's attitude toward colonists and work? His attitude was that if a colonist did not work, then they did not eat.
What were 2 reasons why Great Britain wanted to preserve the Jamestown colony in Virginia? 1.) To use it as a base to send missionaries who would convert Native Americans to Christianity; 2.) To serve England in future conflicts with Spain.
What product helped "save" the Jamestown colony? Tobacco did this.
How did the change from trading with Native Americans to a tobacco - based agricultural system "seal the fate" of Native Americans in the 1620's? 1.) English settlers wanted more Native American lands so they could plant more crops; 2.) Agricultural success meant that more people would want to come to the New World from England to take advantage of profits.
Why was King James happy to see Puritans on their way to colonize the "New World"? He was happy about this because they had been giving him "problems" by "agitating for more change through religious reformation.
What does the term "pilgrims" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the group of Separatists who founded the colony at Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620.
What was the "Mayflower Compact"? This was the first set of written laws in the "New World".
How did the first Thanksgiving come about? This happened when English settlers re-created a harvest festival in 1621.
What does the term "Puritans" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the name given to Protestants within the Church of England who wanted to stay in the church but "purify" it of what they saw as Roman Catholic ways.
What was the "Great Migration"? This is the term used to describe a period when 20,000 people left England to live in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.
What was the name of the "first governing body" of the New World? The name of this was the Great and General Court.
What were the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut? This was the name of the first written constitution in the New World.
What does the term "Halfway Covenant" mean/ refer to? This term refers to a plan by New England clergy to allow adults who had been baptized because their parents were church members, but who had not experienced religious conversion, to have their children baptized.
What does the term "proprietary colony" mean/ refer to? This term refers to a colony that was owned by one person and their heirs. The owners were allowed to do whatever they wanted with the lands that the English king or queen granted them.
What was Lord Baltimore's general goal when establishing Maryland? His goal was to create a haven for English Catholics.
What was the "headright system"? This was a system in which each settler was granted a set amount of land for each "head" (i.e. each person) that settled in the colony.
What does the term "patroon" mean/ refer to? This term refers to Dutch settlers who were given large tracts of land along the Hudson River in the 1600's.
Why was Pennsylvania established? This colony was established as a haven for a religious group.
What was the "Charter of Liberties"? This was a political document that established an elected legislature in Pennsylvania.
What were the two (2) social divisions in South Carolina in the late 1600's? 1.) In the north - poor, white farmers from Virginia; 2.) In the south - large - scale rice farmers.
Why did James Oglethorpe want to establish a colony in Georgia? To create a place where people who were in debtor's prisons in England could be sent to "find new lives".
How did slavery begin in the United States? This began when John Rolfe traded food supplies to the Dutch for 20 African slaves in order to create a workforce for his tobacco farm in 1619.
Who founded the city of Quebec in 1608? Samuel de Champlain founded this city.
What discovery did Father Marquette and Louis Joliet make related to the Mississippi River? They discovered that the Mississippi River did not provide a route to China - or the Pacific Ocean - as they thought it would.
What does the term "coureurs de bois" mean? This term means "runners of the woods". It refers to French trappers in Canada in the late 1600's.
What was the Pueblo Revolt? This was a revolt of Pueblo Indians against the Spanish who had become their overlords (1680). It was sparked by Spanish suppression of Pueblo culture.
What does the term "natural rights" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the idea that all people are born with God - given rights such as life and liberty. It was believed that neither government nor written law could take these rights from a person.
Who created the idea of "natural rights"? Philosopher John Locke did this.
What did John Locke state in his "social contract" theory? He stated that people had to give up some of their rights to ensure that everyone's safety was protected. But if a government abused the people, they had the right to overthrow the oppressive government.
What does the term "Middle Passage" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the route that African slave ships took from West Africa to the Colonies during which as many as one - fourth of the enslaved Africans died.
What were conditions like on slave ships as described by Olaudah Equiano? Conditions were cramped and terrible. Enslaved Africans were forced to lie on wooden shelf - like bunks with no mattress while chained together. These bunks were kept filthy, causing disease to spread rapidly.
What was the Stono Rebellion? This was the name given to an uprising of Carolina slaves who tried to gain their freedom in 1739.
Who were the "wealthiest colonists" by the mid - 1700's? These were colonists who lived on rice, tobacco, and indigo plantations in Virginia and the Carolinas.
What were the "Salem Witch Trials"? This was a period of hysteria in Salem, Massachusetts during which women and men were accused of being witches who had made a pact with the devil. Many accused were executed.
Why did women living on Colonial era farms have to have some knowledge of medicinal herbs as well as some medical knowledge? These women needed this information because they did not have access to formal medical care.
Why did cities like Boston and New York City become the largest cities by the mid - 1700's? These cities became the largest because they had become centers of trade and culture for the whole British empire.
Who was Cotton Mather? He was the first person to fight to create a system of smallpox vaccinations in 1721.
What does the term "mercantilism" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "an economic system whereby the government intervenes in the economy for the purpose of increasing national wealth".
What does the term "Triangle Trade" mean/ refer to? This is the term for the exchange of plants, animals, and people between Africa, the Caribbean, and the English Colonies.
What was the "First Great Awakening"? This was the name given to a series of religious revivals that was started by Jonathan Edwards and Solomon Stoddard in the early 1700's.
What was the Albany Plan of Union? This was a plan - written by Ben Franklin and other colonial leaders - that would unite the colonies to manage defense and Indian affairs. The plan was ultimately rejected.
Created by: sticklerpjpII