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Vocabulary Words

Vocabulary Words---Biochemistry

TermDefinition
Organic (compounds) is natural matter or compounds with a carbon base, and also refers to food and meat grown or raised without chemicals or pesticides
Enzyme a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
Hydrolysis the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
Polymer a substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together, e.g., many synthetic organic materials used as plastics and resins.
Dehydration synthesis refers to the formation of larger molecules from smaller reactants, accompanied by the loss of a water molecule.
Nucleotide a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Substrate the substance on which an enzyme acts.
Glycogen a substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide which forms glucose on hydrolysis.
Inorganic relating to or denoting compounds which are not organic (broadly, compounds not containing carbon).
Peptide a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain, the carboxyl group of each acid being joined to the amino group of the next by a bond of the type -OC-NH-.
lipid any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids.
Protein any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues.
Carbohydrate any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose.
Nucleic acid a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.
Denature/denaturation s the alteration of a protein shape through some form of external stress (for example, by applying heat, acid or alkali), in such a way that it will no longer be able to carry out its cellular function
Amino acid a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.
Deoxyriboses nucleic acid (DNA) molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes.
Monomer(s) a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.
Monosaccharide(s) any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar.
Created by: sdwyer5125