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4. Secession, Civil

Review Vocabulary from Passing the South Carolina End of Course Exam for United

TermDefinition
Civil War April 1861- April 1865, fought between the Union and Confederate states over the issues of slavery, federal power and preserving the union.
Secession of States following Lincoln’s election, several southern states seceded (left) the Union.
State’s Rights belief that states should have great freedom to govern themselves.
South Carolina Nullification Crisis 1832-1833 S Carolina threatened the doctrine of nullification and secede from the Union if tariffs were'nt repealed. Pres Jackson prepared federal troops to force S Carolina’s compliance. Sen Henry Clay proposed a compromise that both sides accepted
John C. Calhoun influential South Carolina senator and one-time vice president to Andrew Jackson who wrote Exposition and Protest and was an adamant defender of state’s rights.
Popular Sovereignty principle that the will of the majority should decide an issue. In particular, it was the view held by those who believed residents of a particular state or territory should decide for themselves whether or not permit slavery.
Fugitive Slave Law law attached to the Compromise of 1850 which required that northern states forcibly return escaped slaves to their owners in the South.
Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court; Scott had couldn't sue; he was a slave, not a citizen. Slave owner couldn't be deprived of “property” without due process of law. Ruled Missouri Compromise was violation of Fifth Amendment; declared slaves free w/o due process of law.
John Brown 1859; radical abolitionist; attacked Harper’s Ferry federal arsenal; hoping to seize weapons & give them to slaves so they could rise up and rebel. Plan failed when US troops under Colonel Robert E Lee surrounded the arsenal & forced Brown’s surrender.
Frederick Douglass After escaping slavery in Maryland, he educated himself and became the most prominent African-American speaker for the abolition of slavery. He even helped John Brown plan (but did not participate in) the Harper’s Ferry raid.
Harriet Tubman escaped slave who heroically returned to the South 19 times to help other slaves escape to freedom by way of the Underground Railroad.
Underground Railroad a network of people, including Harriet Tubman, who helped slaves escape to the northern US and Canada.
Harriet Beecher Stowe Her 1852 novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, was a fictional account of the horrors faced by a slave family in the South. Though she was white and had never been a slave, her book motivated many people in the North to support the abolition of slavery.
Republican Party coalition party (anti-slavery northern Democrats, Whigs, and Free Soilers). Didn't call for the immediate abolition of slavery, but opposed the extension of slavery into new US territories. Lincoln was the party’s first elected presidential nominee.
Presidential Election of 1860 Republican, anti-slavery candidate, Abraham Lincoln, elected president due to divisions in the Democratic party over the issue of slavery. His election aroused such great concern among southerners that South Carolina responded by seceding from the Union.
Confederate States of America “nation” formed by the states that seceded from the Union.
Fort Sumter, SC site of the first shots of the Civil War when Confederate troops fired on the Union Fort.
Abraham Lincoln President of the United States during the Civil War. Wrote the Emancipation Proclamation, granting freedom to slaves living in states that had seceded from the Union.
Ulysses S. Grant Union general who finally defeated Robert E. Lee and effectively ended the Civil War.
William T. Sherman Union general whose victory at Atlanta helped Lincoln win re-election and who is most remembered for his “march to the sea”.
Jefferson Davis first and only president of the Confederate States of America.
Robert E Lee brilliant general who commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, won impressive victories at the Second Battle of Bull run and Chancellorsville, and eventually surrendered to Grant effectively ending the Civil War.
Northern Advantages during the Civil War more railways, more factories, and a greater population from which to draw soldiers and a labor force. Also had an established government.
Southern Advantages during the Civil War better military leaders (initially), the need to fight only a war of attrition, and the motivation of fighting for the their own independence.
Anaconda Plan Union Gen Winfield Scott’s victory plan. Surround Confederacy ; cut off supply lines (anaconda wraps around prey & kills it). Restricted southern trade, transport & communication by controlling Mississippi River, cutting CSA territory in half, & blockad
Antietam battle fought in Maryland as Lee tried to invade the North for the first time. He was turned away after the bloodiest single day of fighting in the war.
Gettysburg fought in Pennsylvania, key turning point of the Civil War. Without Jackson to assist him, Lee’s forces proved less aggressive than usual and failed to win valuable high ground early in the battle. Union forces under the command of General George Meade
March to the Sea Sherman’s march across Georgia and the Carolinas in which he burned cities and destroyed railways as he attempted to trap General lee between himself and Grant.
Writ of Habeas Corpus the guarantee that a person cannot be imprisoned without being brought before a judge. It was, at times, suspended by Lincoln during the Civil War.
Draft a policy in which the government selects certain individuals for military service rather than waiting for them to enlist.
Copperheads Union Democrats who opposed Lincoln
Emancipation Proclamation executive order which freed slaves in the Confederate States, issued by Abraham Lincoln.
54th Massachusetts African-American unit in the Union army which inspired its fellow white troops and won a place in history with its courageous assault on Fort Wagner near Charleston in July 1862.
Appomattox Courthouse site of Lee’s surrender to Grant.
Andrew Johnson succeeded Lincoln as president and was the first president in US history every impeached.
Presidential Reconstruction plan for Reconstruction supported by President Andrew Johnson. It was less severe than Radical Reconstruction and only required that southerners swear allegiance to the Union and that states denounce their secession and ratify the 13th Amendment. Once d
Radical Republicans Republicans in Congress who favored imposing strict conditions and Republican policies on the South during Reconstruction.
Thirteenth Amendment Constitutional amendment that ended slavery throughout the United States.
Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed that no person (regardless of race) would be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. It granted former slaves the status of citizenship and was ratified in 1868.
Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed that no citizen may be denied the right to vote “by the United States or any state on the account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” The amendment had great impact in the South by guaranteeing African-Americans the right to v
Sharecropping Under this practice, a family farmed a portion of landowner’s land in return for housing and a share of the crop. This practice replaced slavery in the South. Many African-Americans were part of this system after emancipation.
Tenant Farming system in which people paid rent to farm land owned by someone else, owned the crops they grew, and were less at the mercy of landowners than sharecroppers. Ex-slaves who were part of this system fared better than those who were sharecroppers.
Freedmen’s Bureau first federal relief agency in US history. It served to provide clothing, medical attention, meals, education, and even some land to freed blacks and some poorer whites.
Black Codes laws meant to keep African-Americans subordinate to whites by restricting the rights of freed slaves.
Ku Klux Klan secretive organization whose members often dressed in hooded white robes and used violence, murder, and threats to intimidate blacks and those who favored giving African-Americans equal rights. Its numbers grew after WWI as it expanded its focus from simp
Compromise of 1877 political compromise that made Republican Rutherford B. Hayes president in exchange for an end to Reconstruction.
“Solid South” term refers to the fact that, for nearly a century after Reconstruction, Southerners remained distrustful of the Republican party and “solidly” supported Democratic candidates.
Jim Crow Laws laws passes in the South after Reconstruction that required blacks and whites to use separate public facilities.
Literacy Tests requirements used by whites in the South to prevent African Americans from voting.
Poll Taxes method which took advantage of the fact that most blacks were poor in order to prevent African-Americans from voting.
Grandfather Clauses special exemptions in voting laws which stated that one need not pay a poll tax or pass a literacy test if one had voted before or had ancestors who voted. They were meant to allow poor, illiterate whites to vote while still excluding African-Americans.
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court case which sanctioned segregation and established the principle of “separate but equal.”
Booker T. Washington former slave who founded the Tuskegee Institute. He taught his students that if blacks excelled in teaching, agriculture and blue collar fields (trades requiring manual labor), they would eventually be treated as equal citizens. He was criticized by som
W.E.B Dubois first black PH.D. graduate from Harvard University. He adamantly rejected justifications for segregation. He argued that blacks should pursue occupations in the humanities and in white-collar fields. He believed that blacks mush be politically, legally
Ida Wells-Barnett Influential African-American woman. Campaigned against lynchings, fought for women’s suffrage, and helped organize the NAACP.
Created by: amygilstrap7