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Vocabulary Words

Vocabulary for Western Expansion and the Gilded Age

TermDefinition
Bessemer Process A cheap and efficient process for making steel, developed around 1850.
Telephone a system for transmitting voices over a distance using wire or radio, by converting acoustic vibrations to electrical signals.
Great Plains The vast of grassland that extends through the central portion North America, from Texas northward to Canada, east of the Rocky Mountains.
Indian Wars is the collective name for the various armed conflicts that were fought by European governments and colonist
American Indian Citizenship Act The government of the United States confers citizenship on all Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the country.
Transcontinental Railroad A railroad line linking the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States, completed in 1869.
Thomas Edison is credited credited with inventions such as the first practical incandescent light bulb and the phonograph. He held over 1,000 patents for his inventions.
Klondike Gold Rush often called the Yukon Gold Rush, was a mass exodus of prospecting migrants from their hometowns to Canadian Yukon Territory and Alaska after gold was discovered there in 1896
Reservations Is an area of land managed by a Native American tribe under the the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Alexander Graham Bell was one of the primary inventors of the telephone, did important work in communication for the deaf and held more than 18 patents.
Frontier the advancing border that marked those lands that had been settled by Europeans. It is characterized by the westward movement of European settlers from the original Atlantic coast (17th century) to the Far West (19th century).
Homestead Act A law enacted in 1862, that provided 60 acres in the west to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of household and would cultivate the land for five years
Dawes Act a law, enacted in 1887, that was intended to “Americanize” Native Americans by distributing reservation land to individual owners
Corporation a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
National Market The domestic marketplace for goods and services operating within the borders of and governed by the regulations of a particular country.
Monopoly the exclusive possession or control of the supply of or trade in a commodity or service.
Gilded Age the tumultuous years between the Civil War and the turn of the twentieth century. During this era, America became more prosperous and saw unprecedented growth in industry and technology
Entrepreneur a person who organizes. operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture.
Captains of Industry was a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributed positively to the country in some way
Robber Barons a person who has become rich through ruthless and unscrupulous business practices (originally with reference to prominent US businessmen in the late 19th century).
Andrew Carnegie was a self-made steel tycoon and one of the wealthiest businessmen of 19th century. He later dedicated his life to philanthropic endeavors.
John D Rockefeller was the head of the Standard Oil Company and one of the world's richest men. He used his fortune to fund ongoing philanthropic causes.
Philanthropy the act of voluntary giving by individuals or groups to promote the common good. It also refers to the formal practice of grantmaking by foundations to nonprofit organizations
interstate Commerce The first federal regulatory agency, established by passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 to regulate the railroads.
Laissez-faire An economic theory based upon the ideas of Adam Smith, it contended that in a free economy self-interest would lead individuals to act in ways that benefited society as a whole and therefore government should not intervene.
American Federation of labor (AFL) An alliance of trade and craft unions, formed in 1866.
Demography The study of statistics such as births, deaths, income or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations
Political Bosses a boss is a person who controls a unit of a political party, although they may not necessarily hold a political office.
"New Immigrants" is a nationally representative multi-cohort longitudinal study of new legal immigrants and their children to the United States based on nationally representative samples of the administrative records, compiled by the Naturalization Service.
Americanization is the process of an immigrant to the United States becoming a person who shares American values, beliefs, and customs by assimilating into American society.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act was the first Federal act that outlawed monopolistic business practices. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 was the first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts.
Union association of workers in a particular trade, industry, or company created for the purpose of securing improvements in pay, benefits, working conditions, or social and political status through collective bargaining.
Samuel Gompers was an early labor leader, first in his own union and later as president of the American Federation of Labor. As its president nearly continuously between 1886 and 1924, Gompers led the labor movement in achieving solid gains for workers
Tenement a multifamily urban dwelling, usually overcrowded and unsanitary.
Immigration The movement of people living in one country into another country, is a fundamental aspect of human history, though it was as controversial hundreds of years ago as it is today.
Ethnic Ghettos is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Created by: AlyssaHunter23