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USH Unit 1

Colonial North America

TermDefinition
New England Colonies founded predominately for religious reasons. Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
Middle Colonies most diverse colonies; included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.
Southern Colonies Good soil and weather allowed for the production of valuable cash crops. Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.
Jamestown The first successful English settlement founded in Virginia by a joint-stock company called the Virginia Company.
Headright System System meant to attract settlers to the colony of Virginia by promising 50 acres of land.
Staple Crops food makes up dominant portion of a standard diet in a region
Plantation System economic system that relied on huge farms owned by wealthy landowners who raised cash crops. It required large numbers of indentured servants and/or slaves.
Indentured Servants People who agreed to work for a landowner for up to seven years in exchange for the landowner paying for their trip because they could not afford the trip on their own.
Slavery a system in which people are “owned” like property.
Gentry the wealthy, upper class of Southern Colonies.
Puritans Religious group that wanted to establish a community built solely on “pure biblical teaching” rather than Anglican traditions. In 1620, established a colony at Plymouth, Massachusetts and later at the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Salem Witch Trials Several young girls claimed that they had been possessed by the devil and accused various townspeople of being witches. Before it was over, colonial authorities actually brought the accused to trial and condemned a number of them to death.
Public Education New England Puritans passed laws requiring schools for communities of a certain size. Only boys attended these schools. In the South, poorer children were taught at home; rich landowners hired tutors or sent their children to Europe to be educated.
Quakers Religious group who founded Pennsylvania and did not recognize class differences, promoted equality of the sexes, practiced pacifism (non-violence), and sought to deal fairly with Native Americans.
Salutary Neglect Philosophy in which ,except for limited efforts by the crown to assert its control in the mid 1600s, the English government basically let the colonists govern themselves.
Representative Governments governments in which the people elect their own officials and have a voice.
Colonial Women considered second class citizens. While they had more freedom than English women, they could not vote or attend school. By law they were under their father or husbands control. Some women worked as shopkeepers, hostesses, printers and even as doctors.
African Slaves As the need for labor increased in southern colonies, they were purchased and brought to the south to work on the plantations. In the early years some were able to buy their freedom.
Limited Government government that must obey a set of laws, usually stated in a written document like a constitution.
Magna Carta document signed by King John in 1215 that granted the nobles various legal rights and prevented the king form imposing taxes without the consent of a council.
Parliament legislative body of British government. Has the authority to impose taxes.
English Bill of Rights 1688 document signed by William and Mary that limited power of English kings.
Common Law Law based on tradition or past court decisions, rather than on written statute.
Natural Rights A concept coined by John Locke, every human is born with the right to life, liberty and property. No government can take these away.
House of Burgesses Established in Virginia in 1619, it was the first example of limited self-government in the British colonies and consisted of both and elected and an appointed house.
Colonial Governors leaders appointed by the English king, technically in charge of the colonies.
Colonial Legislatures elected bodies consisting of local residents of the colony that came to posses most of the power. Typically consisted of two houses. One was an advisory council appointed by the governor, while the other was elected by eligible voters.
Proclamation of 1763 document issued by King George III, forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains and put the territory under British military control.
Stamp Act law which taxed nearly all printed material by requiring that it bear a government stamp.
“No Taxation Without Representation” protest made by colonists in which they appealed to the fact that they had no representation in Parliament as justification for why they should not be obligated to pay British taxes.
Declaratory Act This act stated that Parliament had the authority to impose on the colonies.
Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 British soldiers fired shots at colonists that left several colonists dead or dying. It was depicted as a brutal slaying of innocent civilians and increased colonial resentment.
Boston Tea Party protest in which colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians, raided British ships, and dumped crates of British tea into the Boston Harbor.
Coercive/Intolerable Acts Passed by Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party, these acts closed Boston Harbor and placed a military governor over Massachusetts. In additions, England expanded the Candadian border, thereby taking land away from certain colonies.
First Continental Congress September 1774 Meeting of colonial representatives to deal with oppressive British laws. Congress wrote a declaration of rights and grievances to the king.
Created by: amygilstrap7