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A.History q2 (17-29)

QuestionAnswer
England was Protestant, Bible was freely available, seeds of the English Reformation reasons why it was God's perfect timing for the English to come to America
John Wycliffe planted the seeds of the English Reformation translated the entire Bible into English Morning Star of the Reformation
William Tyndale gave England the first printed English Bible
Henry VIII broke England's ties with the Roman church and made himself the head of England's official church
Queen Elizabeth I under whom England had access to the Bible in English like never before; stability and relative prosperity
Bible all of the ideas about morality, justice, individual responsibility, and freedom that have made America great came from what
limited representative government type of government England had been developing for centuries
Magna Carta helped prepare England for limited government
King John signed the Magna Carta
Parliament paved the way for more representative government in England;
John Cabot first explorer of the Modern Ages to set foot on the mainland of North America
1497 Year Cabot came to North America
New-found-land England's first and only solid claim to territory in the New World (discovered by Cabot)
Sir Martis Frobisher explorer sent by Queen Elizabeth to find the Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage supposed water route through North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific
Sir Francis Drake first Englishman to sail around the world
Golden Hind Sir Francis Drake's ship
Nova Albion New England; discovered by Drake
desire for religious, political, and economic freedom main reason for the English to emigrate to America
Dissenters those who opposed the official Church of England
Anglican Church Church of England
Catholics and Puritans two largest groups of dissenters
Separatists withdrew and formed their own churches
divine right of kings says that absolute monarchy is the only form of government sanctioned by God, so monarchs have absolute authority of all matters
inflation, shortage of land, unemployment main reasons why the English wanted economic freedom
inflation amount of capital (wealth) in circulation increased, driving the price of goods ever higher
Enclosure Movement landholders began to evict tenant farmers and enclose their fields with fences or hedges in order to raise sheep, leaving thousands of peasant farmers without land to farm or a place to live
sovereigns, businessmen, settlers 3 main groups of Englishmen who sought to colonize the New World
sovereigns wanted to colonize America in order to bring wealth, honor, and prestige to their homeland
businessmen wanted to colonize America in order to make a profit and better themselves as well as others; saw it as a chance to benefit their entire nation
settlers went to America because of the lure of adventure and financial gain, but mostly because of their desire for freedom
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Sir Walter Raleigh both tried to go to America, but were forced back by bad weather
Sir Humphrey Gilbert sailed to Newfoundland five years after being forced back; died in a storm on the way back
Virginia territory Raleigh claimed
John White sent, along with about 100 settlers, to Chesapeake Bay (sent by Raleigh)
Roanoke where White and the settlers stayed instead of Chesapeake Bay the entire colony vanished
Croatoan word left behind in Roanoke
Virginia Dare first English child born in the present-day United States White's granddaughter
joint-stock company several businessmen invest stock in a single company to support a colonizing venture
London Company settled southern Virginia
Plymouth Company settled northern Virginia
Jamestown first permanent English settlement in the New World
1607 Jamestown founded
low lying land infested with malaria the river water was contaminated the colonists were too lazy/too proud to work 3 problems with Jamestown
common-store system Jamestown's biggest problem
Communism the common-store system was an early form of what government?
Captain John Smith saved Jamestown from destruction any who would not work should not eat
starving time settlers ate dogs, horses, rats, mice; Captain Smith was back in England bc of an injury
John Rolfe one of the most famous Virginian settlers; married an Indian princess
Pocahontas Indian princess John Rolfe married
Powhatan Indian chieftan (Pocahontas' father)
tobacco major crop grown by the colonists (after the American Indians taught them how to)
indentured servants one whose passage to America was paid by an established colonist; in return, the servant worked for his benefactor without pay for an agreed-upon period of time (4-7 yrs)
private enterprise (capitalism) Adopted when the leaders of Jamestown gave each man a parcel of land on which he could produce his own food
The first boatload of women arrived in Jamestown Beginning of the slave trade in British North America House of Burgesses established 3 things that happened in 1619
royal colony A colony owned and controlled directly by the king and administered by his royal governor
precedents Happenings that serve as examples to be followed in the future
House of Burgesses Important example for representative government in early America; Advisory body to the governor of the colony
burgesses Delegates from the various districts of Virginia sent to a representative assembly in Jamestown
Governor Berkeley Refused to protect the settlers from the Indians
Nathaniel Bacon Went again the governor’s wishes by pursuing the Indians and marching on Jamestown and burning it to the ground
Council for New England Name of the Plymouth company when it re-organized and 1620 after trying to settle Maine
James I Opposed the religious freedom because he believed that those who questioned his religious authority were also questioning his political authority
congregationalism The theory of church government which says that every body of believers should be independent and self governing
Pastor John Robinson Pastor of a group of separatists in Scrooby, England;
Leyden Where Robinson led the separatists to find religious freedom and economic success
1)They didn’t want their children exposed to the Worldliness of dutch Society 2) they were concerned that their children could not get a proper education 3) they wanted their children to grow up as proud Englishman not as Dutchman 3 reasons the Separatists wanted to leave Holland
Pilgrims The courageous people who left all to build a new life in the north American wilderness and to evangelize the native inhabitants
Sir Edwin Sandys Helped the pilgrims secure a patent from the London company to settle within its Virginia territory
Adventurers Agreed to finance the expedition in exchange for a share in the pilgrim’s profit during the first seven years
Speedwell The Dutch ship that was supposed to carry some of the Leyden congregation to the New World before it sprung two leaks and was abandoned
Mayflower English ship that carried the strangers and separatists to the New World
Strangers Non-separatists on the mayflower
Cape Cod Where the pilgrims ended up landing due to a storm knocking them off course
Mayflower Compact 41 men gathered in the cabin of the mayflower to sign this; it expressed that the people were willing to show due submission to just and equal laws etc.
New Plymouth Where the pilgrims finally stepped ashore in the New World
1620 Year the Pilgrims landed in Plymouth
Squanto Indian to knew English and guided and interpreted for the English and taught them how to hunt fish and plant crops
William Brewster The pastor of the pilgrims
John Carver The pilgrims’ first governor
William Bradford Governor of Plymouth; Wrote a history book; governor for 30 years
History of Plymouth Plantation First American history book; written by William Bradford
free enterprise Established when Governor Bradford divided the land among the colonists and made each family responsible for themselves
self-governing colony What Plymouth remained until 1691
General Court Met periodically to pass laws, carry out provisions of the law, and judge cases and controversies arising under the law
representative democracy Plymouth switched from a direct democracy to this when population growth made the first impractical
deputies Elected by the freeman of each town to represent them in the general court
churches In its early years, Plymouth had no established what
Miles Standish Non-separatist Who served as commander in chief of the pilgrims’ military defense force
John Alden Non-separatist who held various political offices in the colony
Priscilla Alden John Alden’s wife
Created by: tatianaprince