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major differences between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells prokaryotes are unicellular. eukaryotes are multicellular. Prokaryotes do not contain a nucleus. eukaryotes contain a true nulceus.
anatomy of the eukaryote nucleus the nucleus is contained inside a nuclear membrane (or envelope) that is a double membrane intended to protect the nucleus from the cytoplasm. contains nuclear pores for two-way selective exchange
function of the outer membrane of the mitochondria a barrier between the cytosol and the inner environment of the mitochondrion
function of the inner membrane of the mitochondria arranged in the infoldings called cristae, contains the molcules and enzymes of the electron transport chain
function of the intermembrane space (space in between outer and inner membrane) protons are pumped to this space from the space inside the inner membrane (matrix) to establish the proton-motive force during oxidative phosphorylation
locations of apoptosis throughout cell enzymes that initiate apoptosis live in the mitochondria and lysosomes
function of lysosomes capable of breaking down many substrates, function in conjunction with endosomes which transport things in and out of the cells, helps prevent damage to cells
function of rough endoplasmic reticulum covered in ribisomes which permit the translation of proteins destined for secretion directly into its lumen
function of the smooth ER lacks ribosomes. main function is lipid synthesis and detoxification of certain drugs and poisons. also transports proteins from the RER to the Golgi apparatus
function of the golgi apparatus contains membrane-bound sacs that transport products to its specific cellular location
function of peroxisomes contain hydrogen peroxide. primary function is the breakdown of very long chain fatty acids via beta-oxidation
location, structure, and function of microfilaments made up of solid rods of actin, help cytokinesis by forming the cleavage furrow
location, structure, and function of microtubules hollow polymers of tubulin proteins, form cilia and flagella
structure of eukaryotic cilia or flagella 9 + 2 structure. 9 pairs of microtubules on the outer ring and 2 microtubules in the center
location, structure, and function of intermediate filaments diverse group of filamentous proteins, which includes keratin, desmin, vimentin, and lamins. invovled in cell-cell adhesion and maintenance of the overall integrity of the cytoskeleton. (function specific to the cell and tissue type)
main difference between viruses and other cells viruses lack organelles and a nucleus
which viruses are easiest to kill the ones enclosed in a capsid. the envelope is sensitive to heat, detergents, and desiccation
positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses the genome is directly translated by host cell to functional proteins
negative sense single-stranded RNA viruses the RNA strand is replicated. then the replicated strand is translated to protein
retroviruses enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect cells by integrating their DNA into the host cell's genome via "reverse transcriptase"
lytic life cycle of virus (viruses just wants to utilize the cell's machinery. little regard for the survival of the cell) Stages: 1)viral chromosome enters bacterium(may enter lysogenic cycle) 2)replication of viral chromosome 3)progeny assembly 4)lysis of bacterial cell
lysogenic life cycle of virus the virus is implicated into the host cell's genome, to be reproduced with the host cell during the host cell's normal reproduction.
what are prions and how do they cause disease? infectious proteins (nonliving). cause disease by triggering misfolding of other proteins, usually through the conversion of a protein from an alpha-helical to a beta-pleated sheet
what are viroids and how do they cause disease? small pathogens consisting of short circular single-stranded RNA that infect plants. very few of these are human versions
4 stages of actively dividing cells G1, S, G2, M
interphase the first three stages of actively dividing cells (G1, S, G2)
G0 stage stage that a non-dividing cell spends its time in. characterized by the cell just living and carrying out its functions without any preparation for division
characteristics of G1 stage cells create organelles for energy and protein production (mitochondria, ribosomes, ER) while increasing their size
characteristics of S stage genetic material of cell is replicated
characteristics of G2 stage a quality control checkpoint the cell passes through to make sure organelles are there and enough error-free DNA
characteristics of M stage consists of mitosis with cytokinesis
two major checkpoints in cell cycle G1/S checkpoint G2/M checkpoint
p53 the main protein involved in the cell cycle checkpoints
the four stages of mitosis Prophase metaphase anaphase telophase
characteristics of prophase chromatin condenses into chromosomes, spindles appear, nuclear membrane dissolves
characteristics of metaphase chromosomes align at the metaphase plate
characteristics of anaphase sister chromosomes separate, shortening of the kinetochore fibers
characteristics of telophase (reverse of prophase) spindles disappear, chromosomes uncoil, nuclear membrane forms
cytokinesis separation of the cytoplasm and organelles
what makes meiosis different from mitosis in mitosis there is one round each of replication and division. in meiosis there is one round of replication and two rounds of division
female alleles XX
male alleles XY
SRY region on Y chromosome (sex-determining region Y) transcription factor that iniates the formation of male gonads, insuring all people with a Y chromosome will be male
function of Sertoli cells cells in the seminiferous tubules (in men) that nourish sperm
function of Leydig cells (in the testes) secrete testosterone andother male sex hormones (androgens)
mnemonic for sperm pathway SEVE(N) UP -Seminferous tubules -Epididymis -Vas deferens -Ejaculatory duct -Nothing -Urethra -Penis
biology of a sperm head(contains the genetic material), midpiece (generates ATP from fructose), and a flagella (for motility)
acrosome cap on sperm head that is necessary to penetrate the egg
ovaries produce which hormones estrogen and progesterone
when does Meiosis II occur in the female egg when the sperm penetrates the layers
function of GnRH (gonadtropin-releasing hormone) causes the anterior pituitary gland to synthesize and release FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing-hormone) causing the production of other sex hormones to be triggered. ultimately beginning puberty and continuing sexual function
what causes estrogen to be secreted in response to FSH. this results in the development and maintenance of female reproductive system
function of estrogen in adults leads to the thickening of the endometrium each month in preparation for the implantation of a zygote
function of progesterone and where it is secreted secreted by the corpus luteum. involved in the development and maintenance of the endometrium
where is the adrenal cortex derived from mesoderm
where is the adrenal medulla derived from ecotderm
function of oligodendrocytes produce myelin in the CNS
function of Schwann cells produce myelin in the PNS
function of astrocytes form the blood-brain barrier and nourish neurons
function of ependymal cells line the ventricles of the brain and produce CSF
function of microglia ingest and break down waste products and pathogens in the CNS
resting membrane potential of neuron -70 mV. a result of balancing sodium and potassium equilibrium potential
which ion concentration is higher inside the cell potassium
which ion concentration is higher outside of the cell` sodium
equilibrium potential of potassium -90 mV
equilibrium potential of sodium 60 mV
Created by: jbomalley
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