Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


sociology the study of group -study ppl's behavior, attitudes, emotions *how being in a group affects us as individuals *how as an individual affects a group
Sociological (perspective) Imagination *The concept proposed by C. W. Mills in 1959*See the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society (how social forces shape individual action)*Discover the general in the specificMake personal troubles public issues
August Comte The term “sociology” was coined First to propose studying sociology scientifically
Karl Marx Socialist philosopherBelieved that capitalism would ultimately result in revolution with the working class (proletariat) overthrowing the owners of the means of production (bourgeousie).
Theoretical Perspectives Statement of how and why specific facts are related
Micro sociology addresses interactions among individuals and small groups
Macro sociology addresses comparisons among larger groups such as nation states
Structural- Functionalist Composed of interrelated parts that work together to maintain stability. Macro level theory (looks at structure)
Social-Conflict Society is characterized by social inequality. Social life is a struggle for scarce resources. Macro level theory
Symbolic-Interactionist Composed of symbols. Humans attach meaning to these symbols through interactionMicro level theory
Manifest functions the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
Latent functions the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
Social dysfunction any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
CULTURE the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of lifeCultures describe societies
SOCIETY a relatively self-contained and self-sufficient group of human beings who are united by social relationships
Material culture Physical or tangible creations (such as clothing shelter, and art) that members of a society make, use, and share
Non-material culture Abstract or intangible human creations of society (such as attitudes, beliefs, and values) that influence people’s behavior
SYMBOL anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
LANGUAGE a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
NORMS rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its membersThey define acceptable and unacceptable behavior
Folkways are norms for routine or casual interaction personal space, hand shakes, eating. Any rule of edict. Not very serious b/c you wont go to jail but you will get looked down upon.
Mores are norms that are widely observed and have great moral significancepublic displays of affection. Public nudity in the US is majority is against the rules. Murder- is widely looked down on it except for self-defense.
Laws norms that have been organized and written down
Sanctions are formal a punishment or fine
VALUES culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social livingunderlie beliefs
SUBCULTURE Cultural patterns that set aside some segment of the populationLanguages, sports. You have to be different in some ways but you are still apart of the same culture. You still interact with other ppl.
COUNTERCULTURE Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a societyisolate from other culture. The Amish don’t interact with other cultures b/c they feel other cultures will contaminate their culture.
MULTICULTURALISM acknowledges cultural diversity and promotes respect and equal standing for all cultural traditionsyou even have to give respect to different culture like rapist, child pedophile, sex trade. These are considered culture.
ETHNOCENTRISM the assumption that one’s own culture is superior to others.Eurocentrism- being of the persuasion that white culture is dominate to othersAfrocentrism- basically wearing African attire, eating African food.
Cultural Relativism Judging cultures to their own standards. Equal understanding. Not saying everything is right or wrong.
SOCIAL INTERACTION - the process by which people act and react in relation to others
Cooley – Looking Glass Self We imagine how we look to othersWe draw conclusions about ourselves based on how others react (or how we think they react)Based on the conclusions we draw about ourselves, we develop a sense of our personal identity
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech
STATUS a social position that a person holds that is meaningful to a group or society
Roles behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
CROWD A loosely formed collection of people
SOCIAL GROUP Two or more people who interact and share (or believe they share) the same norms, values, and expectationsCrowds can become social groups!(cheer at the same time)
GROUP COHESION the degree to which individual members identify with each other and with the group
PRIMARY GROUP a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships
SECONDARY GROUP – a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
IN-GROUP a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
IN-GROUP a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
OUT-GROUP a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition.
Obedience Obeying the request of anotherUsually legitimate authority figure, but not always
Milgram Electric ShockHigh level of obedience, even when subject screamed, begged them to stop, or quit responding
GROUPTHINK The tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue (Janis)
FORMAL ORGANIZATION large secondary groups organized to achieve their goals efficiency
Utilitarian Organization Designed to provide specific, instrumental, tangible rewardsthe government, most business
Normative Organization Voluntary association pursuing a goal they view as worthwhileNon profitable
Coercive Organization Involuntary organization that forces behaviors and isolates individuals (Total Institutions)school, prison
The “Iron Cage” of Bureaucracy Often inefficientDon’t hire based on competenceDiffusion of accountabilityHierarchy is undemocratic
Quantitative things with number. A numeric response. Most of sociology is this
Qualitative describing things, telling stories, using words.Gives you more information
Theory Statement of how and why specific facts are relatedIn Sociology: Abstract propositions or statements developed to explain human behavior.
Hypothesis A tentative, specific explanation that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further investigation.
Empirical Observations Concrete evidence and unbiased data gained through direct or systematic observation for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new one. Experienced through the senses.
continuous cycle The relationship between theory and research
Deductive Science reasoning from general to the particular (how most science work)
Inductive Science reasoning form the particular to the general (where you start out with observations, then you get ideas from the observation )( not encouraged b/c it can come out bi-est.
N the number of observations
Independent variable what we manipulate or change or think effects something else ( what happens 1st)What we manipulate or change
Dependent variable what happens when we manipulate or change the independent variableWhat happens when we manipulate or change the independent variable
Measurement procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
Variables (observe) measurable concepts whose values vary from case to case
Concepts (key part of a theory) mental constructs that represent some part of the world in a simplified form
Correlation a relationship where two or more variables change together mental constructs that represent some part of the world in a simplified form
Causation a relationship where one variable causes a change in another variable
Spurious Correlation relationship between two variables is caused by a third factor( a strong positive correlation between the #of ice cream sales and ppl drowning- the 3rd factor heat/summer time)
Experiment Research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions.Tests a hypothesis, or statement of how two variables are relatedBest method to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between variables.
Survey A method in which subjects respond to series of questions in a questionnaire or an interview,Used to for gathering information that cannot be directly observed, Often used to describe a population without interviewing each individual (random sample)
Interview Studies Interviewing subjects to gain qualitative dataDoes not use random samplingUsually small sampleEx: Interviewing survivors of the Great Depression to find out what life was like then
Field Studies Participant Observation - Research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activitiesEthnography- studying other cultures as an observer.These studies present a detailed view of the
Secondary Data Analysis A research method using existing data to draw inferences about society.Old census data, historical records, crime reportsMay save you a lot of money, but often the data you need are incomplete or unavailable.
Content Analysis Analyzing snippets of conversations, books, articles, TV shows, etc…Usually not quantitativeEx: Coding employer-employee conversations for signs of deference (apologies, “sir” or “mam”)
DEVIANCE the recognized violation of cultural norms/social rules
CRIME the violation of society’s formally enacted criminal law
COHORT a category of people with something in common, usually their age.
Created by: Shanea
Popular Standardized Tests sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards