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Behavioral Sciences

Contribution of Franz Gall in neuropsychology developed idea of phrenology, the idea that if a particular trait was well-developed, then the part of the brain responsible for that trait would expand
Contribution of Pierre Flourens in neuropsychology used extirpation (also known as ablation) on animals, which included removing various parts of the brain and observing the behavioral consequences
Contribution of William James in neuropsychology one of the first people in functionalism, the idea that psychology should study how mental processes adapt to their environments
COntribution of John Dewey in neuropsychology believed that psych should focus on the study of the organisms as a whole as it functioned to adapt to the environment, instead of only certain parts
Contribution of Paul Broca in neuropsychology found the "Broca's area" that gives you the ability to speak
contribution of Hermann von Helmholtz first the measure the speed of a nerve impulse.
contribution of Sir Charles Sherrington in neuropsychology first to believe in the existence of synapses
What is the function of afferent neurons and the direction of their signals? sensory neurons. They collect signals from the PNS and send it to the CNS
What is the function of efferent neurons and the direction of their signals? motor neurons. They collect signals from the CNS and send it to the PNS
Function of the reflex arc consists of sensory neurons and interneurons. associated with reflexive behavior
Which nervous system are the olfactory and optic nerves a part of? peripheral nervous system (even though they are an extension of the CNS)
Function of the somatic nervous system extension of PNS. consists of sensory and motor neurons distributed around the body. controls most voluntary movement
function of the autonomic nervous system extension of PNS. controls most involuntary movements
function of the parasympathetic nervous system division of the autonomic nervous system. works to conserve energy. mnemonic for it is "rest-and-digest"
function of the sympathetic nervous system division of the autonomic nervous system. reacts to stress. mnemonic for it is "fight-or-flight"
What are the three layers of the meninges from interior to exterior? pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater
earilest evolutionary parts of the brain hindbrain and midbrain (contain functions necessary for survival)
function of limbic system emotion and memory
What is the cerebral cortex and what are some of its functions? the outer covering of the cerebral hemispheres. just a few of its functions: language processing, problem solving, impulse control, long term planning
What parts of the brain are included in the forebrain? cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus
what parts of the brain are included in the midbrain? inferior and superior colliculi
what parts of the brain are included in the hindbrain? cerebellum, medulla oblongata, reticular formation
general functions of the forebrain complex perceptual, cognitive, and behavioral processes
general functions of the midbrain involuntary reflex responses triggered by visual or auditory stimuli
general functions of the hindbrain balance, motor coordination, breathing, digestion, general arousal (sleeping and waking)
what embryonic structures form the medulla oblongata, and the pons and cerebellum? (respectively) the myelencephalon, and the metencephalon
function of the medulla oblongata vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure
function of the pons provides sensory and motor pathways between the cortex and medulla.
function of the cerebellum maintains posture, balance, and coordinates body movements (alcohol affects this part of the brain)
function of the superior colliculi receives visual sensory input
function of inferior colliculi receives auditory sensory input
function of the thalamus recieves incoming sensory information (except for smell) and relays them to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex
function of the hypothalamus homeostatic functions
function of lateral hypothalamus triggers eating and drinking. (mnemonic: when this is destroyed, one "lacks hunger")
function of the ventromedial hypothalamus provides signals to stop eating. (mnemonic: when this is destroyed, one is "very much hungry)
function of the anterior hypothalamus controls sexual behavior. (mnemonic: when this is destroyed, one is "asexual")
function of the basal ganglia coordinates muscle movement and helps make our movements smooth and our posture steady.
main 3 structures of the limbic system septal nuclei, amygdala, hippocampus
function of the septal nuclei primary pleasure center in the brain
function of the amygdala role in defensive and aggressive behaviors, including fear and rage.
function of hippocampus role in learning and memory processes.
effect of acetylcholine linked to attention and arousal in the CNS
types of catecholamines and their effects epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. they are linked to emotion
epinephrine and norepinephrine effect control alertness and wakefulness. promote the "fight-or-flight" response
dopamine effect role in smooth movements and maintaining postural stability
serotonin effect plays a role in regulating mood, eating, sleeping, and dreaming
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) effect produces inhibitory post-synaptic potentials and is thought to play a role is stablizing neuronal activity in brain
glycine effect inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS by increasing chloride influx into the neuron
glutamate effect excitatory neurotransmitter
endorphin effect (most important neuropeptide to know) natural painkiller
Weber's law focuses on ratio between the change in stimulus and its original value
sclera the white of the eye
retina contains the photoreceptors that transduce light into electrical information the brain can process
cornea domelike window in the front of eye that gathers and focuses incoming light
dilatory pupillae muscel in iris that opens the
Created by: jbomalley
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