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His. Medicine A

who discovered x-rays? wilhelm roentgen.
when were x-rays discovered? 1865.
what did john macintyre do? produce lots of interesting x-rays like a kidney stone, a penny in a child’s throat, frogs legs in motion.
what were the risks associated with xrays? amount of radiation - could lose hair, glass tube could break easily, could take a long time, hard to move around.
what did john hall-edwards do? one of the first doctors to make a diagnosis based off an x-ray.
what did james blundell do? in 1818, he did the first experiments in blood transfusion to help women give birth.
how many blood transfusions did blundell carry out between 1818 & 1829? 10.
what were some problems associated with blood transfusions? blood clots as soon as it leaves the body, rejection of transfused blood as the donor and recipient were not compatible, danger of infection from unsterilised equipment.
who discovered the existence of different blood groups? karl landsteiner.
what does BEF stand for? British Expeditionary Force.
when was the first battle of ypres? 1914.
when were basic trenches dug? 1914.
how deep were the trenches? 2.5 metres.
what was placed in no-man’s-land? barbed wire.
what were the different trenches? the frontline, the support, the reserve, the communications.
what were dugouts? holes dug into the side of the trenches so men could take protective cover if they needed.
how far away were the support trenches from the frontline? 80 metres.
how far were the reserve trenches from the support trenches? 300 metres.
what was the purpose of the support trenches? troops would retreat there if the frontline came under attack.
what was the purpose of the reserve trenches? troops could be mobilised for a counter attack if the frontline trench was captured by the enemy.
how many troops had britain lost between the 12th of october and 11th of november in 1914? 50,000.
when was the second battle of ypres? 1915.
how many british died the second battle of ypres? 59,000.
what did the germans do the first time during the second battle of ypres? use chlorine gas.
when was the battle of the somme? 1st July, 1916.
on the first day of the battle of the somme, how many british casualties/deaths were there? 57,000 casualties, 20,000 deaths.
what two new strategies did the british use in the battle of the somme? creeping barrage - artillery firing from the trenches towards the german lines. first use of tanks - technical problems and unsuccessful.
when the battle of the somme ended, how many british casualties were there? over 400,000.
when was the battle of arras? april 1917.
how many casualties were there in the battle of arras? 160,000.
when was the third battle of ypres? 1917.
how many british casualties were there in the third battle of ypres? what caused so many deaths? 245,000 casualties - the weather was so bad that the ground became waterlogged. men fell into the mud and drowned.
when was the battle of cambrai? 20th october 1917.
why were tanks useful? moved easily across barbed wire, the machine guns very effective.
what were some problems with transporting the wounded on the western front? shelling left the landscape full of craters and holes. lots of fertiliser used in the ground; bacteria in the soil that could lead to infected wounds. men being moved from frontline could be exposed to shelling and gunfire.
what were the problems with horse drawn ambulances? couldn’t cope with large number of casualties, men were shaken about and that made injuries worse.
when were the first motor ambulances brought to the frontline? october 1914.
how many motor ambulances were taken to the frontline to start with? 512.
what were the hygiene problems on the western front? conditions in trenches unpleasant, hygiene problems due to so many soldiers, sewage+dead bodies made the smell really shit in summer, in winter there was flooding and frostbite, rats.
in november+december 1914, how many cases of frostbite were there? 6,000.
what was the chain of evacuation? regimental aid posts, dressing stations, casualty clearing stations, base hospitals.
how far from the frontline were the regimental aid posts (RAP)? 200m.
where were dressing stations located? in abandoned buildings, dug-outs and bunkers.
what did the CCS do? operate on the most serious injuries.
what does CCS stand for? Casualty Clearing Station.
what does ADS stand for? Advanced Dressing Station.
what does MDS stand for? Main Dressing Station.
what does RAP stand for? Regimental Aid Posts.
where were the base hospitals located? near the french and belgium coast.
what does FANY stand for? First Aid Nursing Yeomanry.
when did FANY first arrive? October 1914.
When did the British army decide to allow FANY to drive ambulances? January 1916.
what was FANY made up of? women.
how many FANY nurses were sent to the frontline to begin with? 6 - women on the battlefield was frowned upon.
what did FANY do? they were mostly there for support since they didn’t perform operations or give treatments.
what does RAMC stand for? Royal Army Medical Corps.
what percentage of wounds were to the head, face and neck? 20%.
what did harvey cushing do? developed new techniques in brain surgery.
who was harvey cushing? an american neurosurgeon.
what did cushing use when operating? a local anaesthetic rather than a general one.
what was cushing’s survival rate in 1917? 71%.
what did harold gilles do? became interested in facial reconstruction.
how many face reconstruction operations had taken place by the end of the war? 12,000.
why wasn’t it possible to perform aseptic surgery in dressing stations/casualty clearing stations? contaminated conditions.
what were the main techniques used to prevent infection from spreading? wound excision, the carrel-dawkin method, amputation.
what was wound excision? cuffing away of dead, damaged or infected tissue from around the site of the wound. this would then need to be stitched.
what was the carrel-dawkin method? antiseptics, such as carbolic lotion, were ineffective treating gas gangrene. this method involved a sterilised salt solution through a tube.
how many men were amputated in 1918? 240,000.
in 1914/15, men with a gunshot wound or shrapnel wound to the leg had a what percentage of surviving? 20%.
from when was the thomas splint used? 1916.
what did the thomas splint do? stopped joints from moving. this increased the survival rate of shrapnel/gunshot wounds from 20% to 80%.
how many mobile x-rays were there on the western front? 6.
what was the main use of x-rays on the western front? identify shell fragments and bullets in wounds - in not removed, could cause infection.
where could you find non movable x-rays on the western front? the base hospitals and some of the larger casualty clearing stations.
what could you do to blood so it didn’t have to be passed from donor to patient? add sodium citrate.
who discovered how to rid the need of passing blood from donor to patient and when? richard lewisohn, 1915.
when was it discovered that blood with sodium citrate could be refrigerated? 1915.
who discovered that blood could be refrigerated? richard weil.
how long could blood with sodium citrate be stored for? up to 2 days.
what did francis rous and james turner do? realised that adding a citrate glucose solution to blood allowed for it to be stored for up to 4 weeks.
the availability of blood on the frontline led to what? a huge difference to chances of survival on the front line.
when was the first use of stored blood demonstrated? battle of cambrai.
Created by: esutcliffe
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