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Capitalism Resources & means to produce goods & services are privately controlled by individuals & organizations. Gov enforces laws & regulations
Demographic Transition Theory Links pop growth to use of technology = Change in birth and death rates. Keeps pop size in check. =/= consider other factors limiting pop growth.
Demographic Transition Change in demographics over time
Environmental Justice = treatment of all ppl (race,gender,etc) w/ regard to prevention & relief from environmental & health hazards
Relative Deprivation Feel disadvantaged when compare self to others of similar status - feel abc less resources & privileges
Secularization decreasing devotion to religious practices
Fundamentalism Literal interpretation of sacred writings
Socialism Resources & means to produce goods & services are managed collectively. Rely on gov regulation to decide how wealth is distributed
Social Epidemiology How social factors affect health of a population
Class consciousness lower class understands itself as a class - group with shared needs & interests = could remedy class inequality & poverty
False consciousness failure to recognize poverty as product of oppressive class system
Perspectives on globalization hyper globalist: mov away from indiv nations --> single global society skeptical: nat borders still important bc indiv nations not being =ly integrated into global econ transformationalist: causes new patters on interdependent interxns but outcomes
Associative Learning associations between stimuli and specific responses
Reinforcement POSITIVE reinf: ADD PLEASANT stimulus= keep doing behavior - take trash out = allowance NEGATIVE reinf: REMOVE UNPLEASANT stimulus= keep doing behavior - HA? tylenol takes it away so will take it when have HA - take trash out = stop nag
Punishment POSITIVE punishment: ADD UNPLEASANT stimulus to decrease behavior - home late = yelled at NEGATIVE punishment: REMOVE PLEASANT stimulus to decrease behavior - home late = phone away
Primary and secondary (conditioned) reinforcers 1: deal with physio needs & survival, don't need to learn 2: must learn - reinforcers: praise, prestige, good grades - punishers: fines, scolding, bad grades
escape conditioning learned behavior allows you to escape unpleasant stimulus, end it - cage becomes electrified, mouse escapes to other side
avoidance conditioning learned behavior allows you to avoid unpleasant stimulus completely - whistle before shock = move away when hear whistle = no shock at all
partial reinforcement or intermittent reinforcement only rewarded some of the time - much more resistant to extinction ex: gambling
cognitive processes in associate learning necessary for this learning of non-instinctual behaviors - need higher level brain function to know cause and effect and choose new course of behavior
aversive conditioning escape and avoidance conditioning
inclusive fitness describes overall fitness of an organism - look at their progeny & offspring of close fam
Game Theory math models that rep complex decision making where actions of other group members have to be taken into account. Strategies maximize fitness
Bureaucracy formal org with focus on efficiency & effectiveness. Ideal characteristics: hierarchy, rules & regs, impersonal, impartial
Iron law of oligarchy perspectives on bureaucracy the ppl @ top will eventually value their power over the org & focus more on staying in power than achieving goal of bureaucracy
McDonaldization perspectives on bureaucracy concept of b to chain stores & restaurants -- (predictable, uniform, efficient, automated) rep idea b BUT = loss creativity & originality
role conflict when 2+ roles have conflicting requirements - think conflict is usually between two different ppl
role strain demands of SINGLE role can be overwhelming strain = single
group think every1 in group thinks so much alike that they think they're right. members then don't say what they really wanna say for sake of group harmony - discourages indiv responsibility ex: titanic - overconfidence that it was unsinkable
group polarization through interaction and discussion, attitude of a group is stronger than attitude of the individual members
social control more direct form of socialization where group or individual imposes rules to control behavior of others - rents discipline kids - laws to control citizens
deviance behavior that violates social expectations
stigma negative social label that changes the ID of a person as abnormal or tainted
strain theory deviance happens when there's conflict btw expectations soc has for us and the methods that are okay to achieve them explains crime - feel pressure bc not able to achieve soc expectation of econ success - rob (not condoned) = econ sucess
anomie what strain theory can lead to - lose morals bc of pressure to pursue expectations that society has for us - supposed to have $$, so will rob
differential association theory deviance happens from social learning - basically learn to break rules if that is the behavior that predominates in group
labeling theory society says some behaviors are deviant based on group that carries those out - see community as deviant? members of it are deviant. actions are deviant
transmission pass of culture from gen to gen
diffusion spread of culture from one pop to another - country adapts cultural aspects of another
culture shock honeymoon phase: excited pd negotiation phase: problems arise - lang/homesick adjustment phase: assimilation mastery phase: assimilation
subculture culture shared by smaller group of ppl with specific attributes that set them apart (but still part of larger culture) - deaf, amish, skateboarders
counterculture groups that adopt cultural patterns that oppose the larger culture and get their cultural messages from less mainstream sources - hippie movement, feminists
cultural lag time culture takes to adjust to tech innovations
prejudice unjustified and strict negative generalizations about others
stereotype belief that all members of a group share specific characteristics, can be +/-/neutral
stereotype threat anxiety and impaired performance that results when you're confronted with a (-) stereotype of group you're
self fulfilling prophecy stress and lowered expectations w/ (-) stereotypes = stereotype turns into reality
Created by: orozcomak
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