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Final 8 ddriskill

8th grade

TermDefinition
Free Enterprise Economic system where people decide how to make and spend their money, very little government interference, market decided by supply and demand, people can own private property
Transcontinental Railroad Connected Atlantic to the Pacific after the Civil War. Tunnels had to be dug, Mountain passes had to be blown out with dynamite, bridges had to be built. Much of the work done by Chinese and Irish immigrants
Early Court Cases presided over by John Marshall - Marbury v. Madison, Gibbons v. Ogden, McCulloch v. Maryland All of these cases gave more power to the federal government
Monroe Doctrine President James Monroe issued this in 1823 to proclaim to the world that their would be no more European colonization of the Western Hemisphere
Lowell Mills Started by Francis Lowell that worked women in the factories making textiles - developed into a little community where women worked and lived and sent their money back to their families
Industrialization America was the prime candidate for industry in the Northeast with plenty of capital, labor, and new transportation systems such as canals and steamboats
Erie Canal It made cities grow in the Northeast such as New York City from all the trade and jobs that it created.
German immigrants Many of these immigrants brought vocabulary, food, and traditions to America such as kindergarten, sausage, and Polka music
Quakers Also known as The Society of Friends - William Penn brought them to America - Accepted all people as equal - some of the first to become abolitionists and help runaway slaves
Transcendentalism Started by writer Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau - stressed an emphasis on nature to the meaning of life
Temperance A social movement to improve society - stressed the dangers of the abuse of alcohol - led to the 18th Amendment - many women's and church groups were responsible for this movement
James K. Polk Manifest Destiny president - 1845-1849 - promised to take America from the Atlantic to the Pacific and achieved that goal
Compromise of 1850 Allowed California to become a free state and the rest of the Mexican Cession acquired from the war with Mexico to be decided by popular sovereignty. Also made the fugitive slave law legal capturing escaped slaves in the North including some freedmen
Missouri Compromise Created by Henry Clay in 1820 that temporarily relieved sectional conflicts between the North and South and kept us out of Civil War
Gadsden Purchase Purchased from Mexico in 1853 to complete the Transcontinental Railroad and encourage settlers to move west
Dred Scott Case 1857 Supreme Court decision that determined African Americans were not citizens only property and made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
15th Amendment Gave all races the right to vote
13th Amendment Ended slavery in the United States
Emancipation Proclamation Allowed ex-slaves to join the Union army, gave the Union soldiers something more to fight for shifting the focus of the war to freeing an entire race of people
Fort Sumter First shots of the Civil War where the Confederates opened up on the last federal held fort in the South
Sharecropping Many freedmen turned to this during Reconstruction to try and make a living, but often time put them in deeper debt
Black Codes Used by the South to keep freedmen from having the same freedoms as everyone else minimizing the 14th and 15th amendments
Created by: ddriskill
 

 



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