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Aerospace Eng Review

List of all the vocabulary terms and concepts in Aero. Study for final. -Amy R.

Lighter-Than-Air (LTA) Ex: hot air balloon; Montgolfier brothers; inspired by rising smoke 1.1
Fixed Wing Flight Wright Brothers; heavier-than-air; horizontal and vertical surfaces 1.1
Metal Planes Aluminum - lightweight and strong; more efficient and better engines; fast transportation 1.1
Unmanned-Aerial-Vehicle (UAV) Purpose: Educational or recreational flying; for work - Remote Pilot Airman Certificate 1.1
Turbine Does not work in outer space; gets oxygen for combustion from surrounding air 1.1
Supersonic Flight Pass the air at speed greater than the local velocity of sound 1.1
Orbital Flight A regular, repeating path that one object (satellite) in space takes around another. one 1.1
C. Yeager First pilot to break the sound barrier 1.1
Yuri Gagarin First pilot to fly into space and complete one orbit around the Earth 1.1
Goddard Engineer who built the first liquid-fueled rocket 1.1
Wright Brothers Invented the first airplane that had a powered, sustained and controlled flight 1.1
Engineering Design Process in Aerospace History and past mistakes lead to innovation. 1.1
Wing Generates the most lift to hold the plane in the air; located on either side of the fuselage 1.2
Cockpit At the front of the fuselage; pilots sit in the cockpit 1.2
Aileron Outboard hinged part of the wing; used to roll the wings from side to side; each one works in opposition 1.2
Flaps Additional hinged, rear sections near the body on the wings; deployed down to increase force on takeoff and landing 1.2
Empennage The tail which helps the aircraft point into the relative wind like feathers on an arrow; consists of stabilizers, rudder, and elevator; maintain stability 1.2
Fuselage Enclosed space that holds the cockpit and cabin; parts of the aircraft are attached to this 1.2
Vertical Stabilizer Fixed vertical piece on empennage; controls yaw; keeps nose from swinging from side to side 1.2
Rudder Hinged part of the vertical stabilizer; used to deflect tail to the left or right 1.2
Horizontal Stabilizer Fixed horizontal piece; prevents nose from going up or down 1.2
Elevators Hinged part of the horizontal stabilizer; used to deflect tail up or down 1.2
Lateral Axis that goes from wing to wing 1.2
Longitudinal Axis that goes from nose to tail 1.2
Vertical Axis that goes from top to bottom 1.2
Pitch Turning on lateral axis 1.2
Roll Turning on longitudinal axis 1.2
Yaw Turning on vertical axis 1.2
Push/pull yoke Push yoke to descend; pull yoke to climb 1.2
Turn yoke Turn yoke to control ailerons which rolls aircraft; change direction 1.2
Pedals Controls rudder; right pedal causes rudder and aircraft to deflect right; left to left 1.2
Center of Gravity (fill in table from pilot operating manual) Where the weight is concentrated 1.2
Calculations of moment, total moment, and total weight Moment = Force x distance Total moment = Add up all of the moments of weight Total weight = Add up all of the force weights of the objects, passengers, etc. 1.2
Lift The force that is created by the effect of airflow as it passes over and under the wing. 1.2
Drag Acts in the opposite direction of flight 1.2
Thrust Forward-acting force which opposes drag 1.2
Weight Gravitational attraction of the Earth 1.2
Calculate temperature lapse rate, air pressure lapse rate, air density. Temperature lapse rate = 15.04 - 0.00649*height Air Pressure lapse rate = 101.29 [(T + 273.1)/288.08]^5.256 Air density = p/(0.2869*(T + 273.1)) 1.2
Factors of lift: Deflection, Bernoulli, Coanda effect, circulation Deflection: Newton's Third Law - every action has a reaction; Downward deflected air produces an upward reaction force Bernoulli: fluid velocity increases w/ smaller section Coanda effect: flow accelerates over top Circulation: more curve upper surface 1.2
Airfoil shape: camber, chord, angle of attack, leading and trailing edge Camber:Curve of the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil Cord: line from tip to tail AOA: angle between chord line and direction of wind Leading & Trailing: Leading - curve, trail - point 1.2
Common Planforms: rectangular, swept, delta, tapered Rectangular: from top view, looks like rectangle wings Swept: Upside down v Delta: curved triangle Tapered: rectangle w/ little angle 1.2
Wingtip Vortices Caused by pressure differences; reduce lift; increase drag 1.2
Lift and Drag Equation Lift = ((Coeff of l)*density*v^2)/2 Drag = ((Coeff of d)*density*v^2)/2 1.2
Angle of Attack Increasing it causes an increase in lift and drag until it exceeds critical (stall) angle 1.2
Dihedral Angle that the wing makes with the local horizontal; added to the wings for roll stability 1.2
Aspect Ratio Wings w/ greater aspect ratio (span/cord) are more efficient 1.2
Types of Stability: Dynamic and Static Dynamic = oscillates; static = moves one way 1.2
Gliders Designed to fly long distances w/out producing thrust 1.2
Simulations Used to develop skills to be effectively applied to the actual device 1.3
How and why to fill out a Flight Log Record hours, whether you were a pilot in command, operational conditions, etc. To have the knowledge of what each pilot had so that if there are accidents, we can figure out what happened 1.3
Calculate effect of wind: Air speed and heading (direction plane is pointed) vs. ground speed and course (ground path) Air speed and heading: vector addition ground speed and course: bird's eye view 1.3
Read a VOR Tells the plane position relative to line (radial) from a transmitter; Omni-Bearing Selector (OBS) chooses desired radial; Course deviation indicator (CDI) needle tells position relative to radial and from/to flags 1.3
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME): Measure slant distance and errors Measure: Pythagorean's theorem, error increases as you approach the DME 1.3
Non-directional Beacons Tell their position relative to the plane's heading 1.3
Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) Indicate aircraft's deviation from ideal glide slope (vertical) and localizer (left/right) 1.3
Global Positioning System (GPS) There are 24 GPS satellites and only 3 are needed to give position of 2 points (1 on earth) 1.3
Accuracy Accuracy better than 15m requires a type of correction, usually WAAS (differential correction) 1.3
Air Traffic Coordinated within complex system to improve safety and efficiency; job = 1.3
Material Selection Factors: mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, chemical properties Advantages: Disadvantages: 2.1
Strength The resistance of a material to failure, given by the applied stress 2.1
Toughness The energy required to crack a material; it is important for things which suffer impact 2.1
Elasticity A measure of stiffness = stress/strain 2.1
Stiffness The extent to which an object resists deformation in response to an applied force (compression or tension) 2.1
Fatigue Weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads 2.1
Considerations: centroid location, moment of inertia, modulus of elasticity Create a strong material that can return to original shape w/out much stress or strain 2.1
Calculate Moment of Inertia (rectangular beam) I = (bh^3)/12 2.1
Calculate deflection of a beam delta max = (FL^3)/(48*E*I) 2.1
Difference between composites and other materials create lightweight, strong material 2.1
Material Testing - Read stress/strain curve, find yield stress, ultimate stress, mod of elas. Provides reproducible evaluation of material properties 2.1
Types of propulsion: Propeller (internal combustion), turbine, rocket, ramjet Propeller: engine takes air from the surroundings, mixes it with fuel, burns the fuel to release the energy, and uses the heated gas exhaust Rocket: Fuel&oxygen burn very rapidly&explode&forced through nozzle Ramjet: Aircraft’s velocity compresses air 2.2
Turbine and internal combustion 4 functions Intake, compression, combustion, exhaust 2.2
Types of turbines Turbojet, turbofan (bypass w/ ducted fan), turboprop (external propeller) 2.2
Parts of turbine and what they do intake, bypass, compressor fans, burner, turbines, after burner, exhaust 2.2
Turbojet vs Turbofan vs Turboprop Turbojet is better at supersonic speeds; turbofan is better at subsonic; turboprop most efficient at lower speeds 2.2
Ramjets (supersonic combustion ramjets, scramjets) Have 4 functions, few moving parts bc compress is caused by shape 2.2
Types of rocket engines Solid Fuel, Liquid Fuel, Electronic 2.2
Model rocket motors Know how to read A6-3 (total impulse, average thrust - delay time) 2.2
Rocket stability Needs Center of Gravity to be ahead of center of pressure 2.2
Physiology capabilities and limitations of human body need to be understood 2.3
Limitations of human sight acuity, night vision, color perception 2.3
Basic vision terms Macular vision (5-10 degrees), central vision (1 degree from fovea centralis), rods (b&w only but more sensitive), cones (color vision) 2.3
Night Vision Cones - limited in the macula, look off by 10 degrees, takes 30 min for good night vision 2.3
Sound levels Damage hearing (90 dB for 8+ hours), sound protection (ear plugs, communication headsets, ear muffs, noise reducing headsets) can reduce noise by 30 dB-60dB 2.3
Human Body consists of systems that work together to ensure functionality and life 2.3
Hypoxia Low oxygen levels in the brain, affects eyesight, occurs at altitudes of 10,000 ft or 5,000 ft at night, causes poor judgement & over confidence 2.3
History of Space Travel Mecury mission - space shuttle and ISS 3.1
Space junk Millions of objects, getting more difficult to avoid, Kessler Syndrome predicts that collision will cause more collisions 3.1
Key persons of Orbital Mechanics Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Newton 3.2
Orbits Same laws that govern satellite orbits govern celestial body orbits (e.g. comets, planets, moons) 3.2
Kepler's Three Laws 1. path of planets around sun is elliptical 2. imaginary line from sun to planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time 3. ratio of the squares of periods of any 2 planets = the ratio of the cubes of their avg distances from the sun 3.2
Calculate potential energy, kinetic energy, total energy of a satellite U = -(G*m1*m2)/r K = (G*m1*m2)/2r E total = -( G*m1*m2)/2r 3.2
6 Keplerian elements Eccentricity, size (semi major axis), angle of inclination, RAAN (right ascension of the ascending node), argument of perigee, true anomaly (position on the orbit) 3.2
Major Types of orbits and Adv. vs Disadv. Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit/geostationary (GEO), Highly Elliptical orbit (HEO): ex. Molyniya (Moly), polar orbits, satellite constellations 3.2
Alternative Apps Important consideration of many products: Fluid movement 4.1
Alternative Apps Air travel impacts society and environment 4.1
Aircraft Design Criteria: EFFICIENCY 4.1
Remote System Designs Used in air, ground, maritime, and space environments 4.2
Operator Input Established through use of an operator interface, means to communicate w/ remote system, understand limitations: ex. time lag communicating w/ other planets 4.2
Remote Systems Designed to perform extended operation w/ little human input/impact, know some programming in VEX: inputs, outputs, basic loops, branches 4.2
Created by: amyuseddevil



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