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History - Terms

Second Year History Terms

TermDefinition
Absolute Monarch A king or queen with all power; based on the divine right of kings
Age of Enlightenment Also called the Age of Reason; 18th century when some believed that reason and scientific method could solve problems
Astrolabe Navigation instrument used in the Age of Exploration to find latitude
Bawn Walled enclosure built for defense in the Plantation of Ulster
Blight Potato disease associated with the Great Famine
Caravel Ship used by Portuguese and Spanish to explore coasts of Africa and America
Carvel-built Edge-to-edge planks of wood used in building caravels in the Age of Exploration
Church Abuses Bad practices such as nepotism, simony, pluralism and absenteeism, which were common in the Catholic Church before the Reformation
Clinker-built Overlapping planks of wood used in building ships in Northern Europe
Coffin Ships Badly maintained ships used to transport emigrants to America during the Great Famine
Colony A country controlled by a more powerful country
Conquistadors Spanish conquerors who defeated native empires in Central and South America
Council of Trent Meeting of cardinals, bishops and Pope to reform the Catholic Church before the Reformation, held in northern Italy
Counter Reformation Efforts by the Catholic Church to reform itself and stop the spread of Protestantism
Divine Right of Kings 18th-century belief that kings' or queens' power to rule came from God alone
Domestic System The making of goods such as thread and cloth in people's houses before the Industrial Revolution
Enclosure Dividing the three open fields and the common into individual farms during the Agricultural Revolution in England
Guillotine A device with a sharp blade used for executions at the time of the French Revolution
Indulgences A release from punishment for sin
Inquisition Catholic Church court in Italy and Spain used to try Protestants and Jews
Jesuits Religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola to spread the teachings of the Catholic Church
Justification by Faith Luther's belief that only faith in God would allow a person to go to heaven
Lateen Sails Triangular sails used on caravels to sail into the wind in the Age of Exploration
Log and Line Used in ships of the Age of Exploration to work out the speed of the ship
Logbook Used in ships of the Age of Exploration to record events during the voyage
Nepotism Using your power or influence to get jobs for your family or relations
Norfolk Crop Rotation A rotation of crops over four fields so that no field would be fallow, begun in Agricultural Revolution in England
Padraos Pillars erected along the African coast by Portuguese at the end of each year's exploration
Penal Laws Laws passed in 17th and 18th century Ireland to control/discriminate against Catholics and Presbyterians
Plantation Policy of English government to bring in English and Scottish planters to Ireland
Pluralism When bishops and priest held more than one diocese or parish at the time of the Reformation in the 16th century
Portolan Charts Earliest maps used during the Age of Exploration which showed places along the coast joined by straight lines
Predestination Belief of John Calvin that God decides when people are born whether they go to heaven or hell
Protestant Ascendancy Church of Ireland ruling class in control of Ireland from 17th to 19th centuries
Quadrant Navigation instrument used in the Age of Exploration to find latitude
Republic A country without a king or queen
Revolution A huge and rapid change in politics, economy and/or society
Sans-culottes Militant working class in Paris who supported the French Revolution
Sectarian Strongly favouring one religious group over another
Servitors English soldiers and officials who were granted land in the Plantation of Ulster
Simony The buying and selling of church offices or positions
Spices Used to give flavour to food, brought from the Spice Islands
Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty between Spain and Portugal dividing the newly discovered world between them
Undertakers English planters who got land during the Plantation of Munster, or English and Scottish planters who got land during the Plantation of Ulster
Workhouse Used in Ireland in the 19th century where poorer people had to live if they wanted to get help
Created by: SeanConn24