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Unit 13

QuestionAnswer
Yalta Conference The World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization
Postdam Conference Held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945 --- referred to as the Berlin Conference of the Three Heads of Government of the USSR, USA, and UK
United Nations An international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and economic development
Peace Corps An agency established in 1961 to provide volunteer assistance to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Communism An economic and political system based on one-party government and state ownership of property
Harry Truman A political leader of the twentieth century --- a democrat and was president from 1945 to 1953.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) A defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European countries, the United States, and Canada
Warsaw Pact A military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites
Satellite Nations A country that is dominated politically and economically by another nation
Iron Curtain A phrase used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line that separated Communist in the Soviet bloc of Eastern Europe from countries in Western Europe
Containment The blocking of another nation’s attempts to spread its influence—especially the efforts of the United States to block the spread of Soviet influence during the late 1940s and early 1950s
George Kennan An American diplomat and historian --- best known as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War
Truman Doctrine A U.S. policy, announced by President Harry S. Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
Marshall Plan The program, proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the United States supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after World War II
Berlin Airlift A 327-day operation in which U.S. and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948
Mao Zedong A Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China
Korean War A conflict between North Korea and South Korea, lasting from 1950 to 1953, in which the United States, along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans and China fought on the side of the North Koreans
38th Parallel A circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane --- crosses Europe, the MS, Asia, the PO, NA, and the AO --- formed the border between North and South Korea prior to the Korean War
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) A congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following World War II
Hollywood Ten Ten witnesses from the film industry who refused to cooperate with the HUAC’s investigation of Communist influence in Hollywood
Blacklist A list of about 500 actors, writers, producers, and directors who were not allowed to work on Hollywood films because of their alleged Communist connections
Alger Hiss An American government official who was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg An American couple who were executed in 1953 as spies for the Soviet Union
Joseph McCarthy An American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957
H-bomb The hydrogen bomb—a thermonuclear weapon much more powerful than the atomic bomb
Brinkmanship The practice of threatening an enemy with massive military retaliation for any aggression
John Foster Dulles An American diplomat --- served as United States Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959 --- was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world
Central Intelligence Agency A U.S. agency created to gather secret information about foreign governments
Sputnik Each of a series of Soviet artificial satellites, the first of which (launched on October 4, 1957) was the first satellite to be placed in orbit
U-2 Incident The downing of a U.S. spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960
GI Bill of Rights A name given to the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, a 1944 law that provided financial and educational benefits for World War II veterans
Baby Boom The sharp increase in the U.S. birthrate following World War II
Flexible Response A policy, developed during the Kennedy administration, that involved preparing for a variety of military responses to international crises rather than focusing on the use of nuclear weapons
John F. Kennedy 35th President of the United States --- established the Peace Corps --- assassinated in Dallas (1917-1963)
Fidel Castro A Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008
Bay of Pigs An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, supported by the U.S. government
Cuban Missile Crisis A time of heightened confrontation between the Soviet Union, the United States, and Cuba during the Cold War --- a proxy conflict around Cuba --- happened when the Soviet Union (USSR) began building missile sites in Cuba in 1962
Berlin Wall A guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989
Dwight D. Eisenhower AN American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961 --- was a five-star general in the US Army during WWI and served as supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty The abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground
Created by: sarah23me1