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U.S. History Unit 13

Why was the "International Monetary Fund" established? To maintain exchange rates between currencies, to provide loans to nations that struggled with balancing payments, and provide technical assistance to banks.
What does the term "United Nations" mean/ refer to? An international organization launched at the end of WW2 with leadership from the U.S., Soviet Union, Great Britain, and China.
What are the branches of the United Nations? The Security Council and the General Assembly.
What does the term "Cold War" mean/ refer to? The political and economic confrontation between the United States and Soviet Union that dominated world affairs from 1946 to 1989.
What does the term "containment" mean/ refer to? The policy of resisting further expansion of the Soviet bloc through diplomacy and, if needed, military action, that was developed in 1947-1948.
What does the term "iron curtain" mean/ refer to? A phrase coined by former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the division of Europe following WW2.
What does the term "Truman Doctrine" mean/ refer to? A foreign policy doctrine started by President Truman when he said that the U.S. would help any country facing an internal or external communist threat.
What does the term "Marshall Plan" mean/ refer to? A program where the U.S. sent financial aid to European countries primarily to keep them out of the Soviet sphere of influence.
What does the term "Berlin Airlift" mean/ refer to A program where food and supplies were flown into West Berlin to keep it connected to the U.S. and Western Europe.
What was the "Warsaw Pact"? A military alliance of Eastern European nations that was designed to counter NATO.
What 2 events helped spread Cold War fears in the U.S. in 1949? The construction of the first Soviet atomic bomb and the rise of Communist government in China.
What did Senator Joseph McCarthy do that helped to spread these fears even further? He claimed to have a list of communists working in the U.S. government.
What was the "House Committee on Un-American Activities"? A congressional committee that investigated suspected Nazi and Communist sympathizers.
When did North Korea invade South Korea? June 25, 1950
When was the "final armistice" signed, ending the Korean War? July 1953
What does the term "fair deal" mean/ refer to? The name President Truman gave to his policies to continue and extend many of the New Deal's domestic policies.
When did the U.S. first successfully test a hydrogen bomb? When did the U.S.S.R. do the same? The U.S. tested their first hydrogen bomb in November 1952, and the U.S.S.R. tested their first in August 1953.
Briefly explain the United States' "massive retaliation" policy Rather than station troops all over the world, the U.S. would react instantly and under any circumstance if the Soviet Union tried to expand its influence.
Why was the "Central Intelligence Agency" created? What office/agency was the precursor to the "CIA"? To spy and conduct covert operations in countries that the U.S. feared might become communist. Its precursor was the Office of Strategic Service.
What "intervention" did the CIA conduct in Iran in 1953? What was the purpose of this "intervention"? They overthrew the democratically elected Prime Minister of Iran because they suspected that he had communist sympathies and also to protect British oil interests.
What "intervention" did the CIA conduct in Guatemala in 1954? What was the purpose of this "intervention"? They overthrew the democratically elected government of Guatemala because they feared a communist movement and also to appease the United Fruit Company.
When were the French defeated by Ho Chi Minh's forces at Dien Bien Phu? How was Vietnam divided after this defeat? 1954. It was divided into North and South Vietnam.
Why did Israel attack Egypt on October 29, 1956? How did this conflict end? Israel attacked Egypt, with British and French backing, because Egypt had seized control of the Suez Canal. This ended when the U.S. threatened to send troops to oppose them.
What was "Sputnik"? Why was it so important? It was the world's first space satellite and it was launched by the Soviet Union. It was important because it made the Soviets the first nation in space before the U.S.
What is NASA? Why was it created? A government agency tasked with leading American space efforts. It was created in response to Sputnik and the Soviet space program.
What did the National Defense Education Act do/ provide for? It gave federal aid to improve education, especially math and science.
What was one (1) impact of the implementation of the GI Bill for veterans? It allowed many veterans to attend college and earn degrees.
What does the term "Spirit of Geneva" mean/ refer to? The idea that the U.S. and Soviet Union could work together to prevent the worst possible outcomes of the Cold War.
Briefly explain what happened during the U-2 Spy Plane incident. The USSR shot down an American reconnaissance plan that was flying over their territory. The Soviets were outraged and demanded that Eisenhower apologize, but he refused to do so.
List one (1) of the two (2) "unique" things about President John F. Kennedy. He was the first Catholic to be elected President.
How did television "change" politics? It added new avenues for campaigning through advertisement and televised debates.
What is the Interstate Highway System and why did President Eisenhower support its implementation? It is a national system of superhighways. Eisenhower advocated for it to improve car and truck travel.
List one (1) thing that critics of the impact of the automobile believed. They believed that it was impossible to build enough roads and parking spaces to allow everyone to travel with automobiles.
What was Rev. Billy Graham's view regarding religious denominations at his revivals? He wanted people of all denomination to come to his revivals.
What was author Norman Vincent Peale's message? Believe in yourself and have a humble but reasonable confidence.
What was Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel's message? The need to link modern thinking with traditional Jewish practices and inner piety.
What was the "Nation of Islam"? A religious and political organization founded by Elijah Muhammad that mixed Muslim religious teachings with a campaign for African American separatism, pride, and self-determination.
What was the purpose of the Highlander Folk School? To work with people from the bottom who could change society from the bottom.
What was the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in the "Brown vs. the Board of Education" case? That segregated "separate but equal" schools violate the constitution.
Briefly explain what happened in Little Rock, Arkansas to the "Little Rock Nine". The Governor of Arkansas deployed the Arkansas National Guard to stop nine black children from integrating a white high school.
Why did African Americans boycott the use of city buses in Montgomery, Alabama? They did so in response to the arrest of Rosa Parks.
When did African Americans in Montgomery, Alabama propose that they would end the boycott of city buses? When the city stopped segregating the buses,
What was the "Southern Christian Leadership Conference"? The leading clergy-led voice of the Southern, nonviolent Civil Rights Movement, founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King Jr., and some sixty other black ministers, many of whom were veterans of the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Briefly explain what happened during the "lunch counter sit ins" in Greensboro, North Carolina. Four black students ordered coffee at a whites-only lunch counter and sat there all day. Many protesters joined them in the following days, with over 300 present by the 4th day.
What was the U.S. Supreme Court decision in the "Boynton vs. Virginia" case? They decided that any segregation in interstate transport was unconstitutional.
What was the purpose of the "freedom rides" that began in May, 1961? To test the Boynton vs Virgina decision and hasten integration of interstate bus service and terminals in the South.
What was the purpose of the "March on Washington" that was conducted on August 28, 1963? To support a civil rights bill that had been introduced by President Kennedy.
What was the "Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee" (SNCC)? A black civil rights organization founded in 1960 that drew heavily on younger activists and college students.
What was the "Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party" (MFDP) A separate Democratic delegation, launched as a result of the SNCC-led voter registration campaign, that challenged the right of the regular, all-white delegation to represent Mississippi at the 1964 Democratic Convention.
Briefly explain the circumstances of Malcolm X's conversion to Islam. He was arrested for burglary and converted to Islam while in prison.
How did Malcolm X's pilgrimage to Mecca change his beliefs about working with "whites"? He saw the unity of people of all races in Mecca, and this prompted him to start working with people of all races.
What two (2) organizations did Malcolm X establish after his break with Elijah Mohammad and the Nation of Islam? What was the goal of each of these groups? He founded Muslim Mosque Incorporated to preach what he saw as true Islam (as opposed to the version of Islam taught by the Muslim Brotherhood). He founded Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) to advocate for his political agenda.
Created by: masonpurdy
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