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Unit 10: Westward

Westward Expansion

Westward Expansion (8.91) A period when people settled the Great Plains and the remaining frontier, after the Civil War, searched for a new prosperity. Made possible by railroads.
Sharecropping (8.91) Replaced slavery as the main labor force in the South, farmers worked someone else's land, in return they kept some crops and shared some with the landowner. Plantations in West Tennessee farmed beef, cotton, and soybeans.
Natural Resources affecting Westward Expansion (8.91) Major new industry, sparked by California Gold Rush, caused rapid growth of population, pushed Native Americans off their land.
Fertile Land of Great Plains (8.91) Allowed many crops to grow, but they were sometimes trampled as cowboys transported cows through the Great Plains. Federal government policies encouraged farmers to settle (Homestead Act) and push out Native Americans.
Economic Changes (8.91) Rapid population growth in the North (Gilded Age) created demand for beef (West/Great Plains), coal (Appalachia), and iron. (To make steel for skyscrapers)
Movement to Reservations (8.92) Reserved land for Native Americans out in the west where they were forced to move in the late 1800s to make room for white settlers.
Assimilation (8.92) Thomas Jefferson claimed that the Indian removal was justified because it "gave them a space to live undisturbed by white people as they gradually adjust to civilized ways". (to assimilate them)
Native American Boarding Schools (8.92) Used by federal government to teach Native American children to be "ordinary" Americans and replace indigenous culture.
Battle of Little Bighorn (8.92) 1876 - General Custer sends his troops into a small Indian reservation on the Little Bighorn River, not realizing that it was the Sioux and Cheyenne's primary camp, and he and his troops were massacred very quickly. (7k Sioux vs 700 US)
Battle of Wounded Knee (8.92) 1890 - While the U.S. army is disarming a group of the Lakota (Native Americans) a shot is fired and the resulting massacre left over 200 Lakota and 20 U.S. soldiers dead; considered the end of the "Indian Wars".
Impact of the Railroad on Native Americans (8.92) Allowed more people to travel quickly to the West leading to more conflict; allowed the U.S. army to stay better supplied and reinforced ensuring their eventual victory in the "Indian Wars", cut through some of their land.
Pioneer Settlement Patterns (8.92) The railroad determined some of their settlement, and they settled where there was good land and hunting. (Great Plains)
Buffalo Soldiers (8.92) All-Black cavalry regiments of the US army, fought the "Indian Wars" in the West.
George Jordan (8.92) Buffalo soldier from TN that received a Medal of Honor for his actions in the Indian Wars.
Dawes Act (8.92) 1887 law meant to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream US culture by dividing communal tribal land (owned by everyone) and giving each household a plot to farm; granted U.S. citizenship after agreeing to take a plot and move off their reservation.
Crazy Horse (8.93) Fought the US Army at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
Geronimo (8.93) Fought against being moved onto an Apache reservation until he became a US prisoner of war in 1886.
Sitting Bull (8.93) Fought the US Army at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
Chief Joseph (8.93) Nez Perce leader who tried to escape to Canada but was captured and sent to a reservation in 1887.
Homestead Act (8.94) 1862 law that gave 160 acres of land to citizens willing to live on and cultivate it for five years. Incentivized more westward expansion. (migration)
Barbed Wire (8.95) Cheap fencing solution to keep herded animals off crops in the Great Plains. Solved the problem of fencing materials being expensive and rare.
Six-Shooter (8.95) Cheap, reliable revolver used commonly in the West. Cowboys used it. Gave people protection in the "lawless" West.
Windmills (8.95) Used the wind to help pump water out of wells. The Plains were dry and windy, and this was an easy way to get water for farming, drinking, etc.
Sod Housing (8.95) House (walls and ceiling) made out of sod, common in the Great Plains where there was little wood. How people adapted to find a house in the West.
Steel Plow (8.95) Farm tool used to break up farm land to put seeds in. Lighter and more durable plow to better deal with the harder soil.
Transcontinental Railroad (8.96) The railroad built to connect the west to the rest of the country. Traversed East to West. Provided a means for new settlers to get west quicker and cheaper than in the past. Made interstate trade much easier as well.
Government Encouragement of Railroad Growth (8.96) Promised federal lands in exchange for private companies building the railroad.
Primary Railroad Labor Forces (8.96) Central Pacific: Irish Immigrants Union Pacific: Chinese Immigrants
Golden Spike Event (8.96) The last spike in the railroad that was golden, symbolized that the whole country was now connected. (Promontory, Utah)
American Cowboy Life (8.97) Cowhands that were hired to transport cattle from Texas to the railroad for consumption across the country. On the horse for up to 18 hours a day.
American Cowboy skills (8.97) Riding, rope-work, handling animals, fighting off thieves and bandits, etc.
American Cowboy demographics (8.97) 1/3 Mexican, many African-Americans, most were Civil War veterans, almost all men.
Open Range (8.98) The open and unfenced land in the Great Plains and Texas that cowboys used to transport cattle on.
Long Drive (8.98) The northward route where cows were herded along the open range from Texas to railroads in states like Kansas, Missouri, and Colorado. Threatened by runaway herds.
Cow Towns (8.98) Towns established at the intersection of cattle drive trails and railroads. (ex. Abilene, Dodge City, and Wichita)
American Ranching Industry (8.98) People in the east and north cities wanted beef, incentivizing cowboys to bring cattle from Texas to them via the railroads. Some cowboys were Spanish.
Created by: jefffrye



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