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Unit 12 Chapter 23

Honors History Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
What does the term "Blitzkrieg" mean/refer to? Lightning war
What major country did the German Army defeat first (in May, 1940)? On May 14, 1800 German tanks crossed the border into France, overran the Maginot Line, which turned out to be useless, and turned toward Paris
Briefly explain what happened at Dunkirk in 1940. As the German forces rushed toward Paris, they attempted to cut off a retreat by French and British armies. But 338,000 British, French, and Allied troops were evacuated from the beaches of Dunkirk, leaving nearly all equipment behind
What was the result of the "Blitz" that took place in September, 1940? Bombers attacked British coastal fortifications, airfields, and then in September 1940, began the terror bombing of London. The "Blitz" eventually killed thousands of residents of Britain's capital- six thousand in October alone
America First Committee committee launched in 1940 that argued for American neutrality and for staying out of WWII
Destroyers-for-bases an agreement between the United States and Great Britain to exchange obsolete navy destroyers for British bases
Arsenal of Democracy a phrase coined by Franklin Roosevelt for the materials needed by Britain in its fight with Nazi Germany
Four Freedoms freedoms announced by President Roosevelt in December 1940 that became a rallying point for the causes the US would fight for Freedom of speech and expression Freedom of every person to worship God in his own way Freedom from want Freedom from fear
Lend-Lease Act legislation passed in 1941 for a program through which the US “loaned” or leased military equipment to Britain and other WWII allies for the duration of the war
Atlantic Charter statement of common principles and war aims developed by President Franklin Roosevelt and British prime minister Winston Churchill at a meeting in August 1941
What were Colonel Claire Chennault’s “Flying Tigers”? A volunteer air corps organized to fight for China
List the five places where Japan attacked “within hours of the attack on Pearl Harbor” US bases in the Philippine Islands Aleutian Islands off Alaska Guam (mid-Pacific) Wake Island (mid-Pacific) ?
When did US soldiers on Bataan and Corregidor surrender? In April and May 1942, after holding out for months against impossible odds, the last US troops on the islands of Bataan and Corregidor in the Philippines surrendered
What was the “Bataan Death March”? After surrendering, the American and Filipino troops from Bataan were forced to march sixty-six miles to a railroad junction where they were transported to prison camps
Which three countries were the Axis forces in WWII? Germany, Italy, and Japan
Which three countries were the Allied forces during WWII? United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union
What helped the US navy build their “Hellcat” fighter jet? They captured a Japanese Zero airplane, then the most modern in the war
Selective Service System federal agency that coordinated military conscription (the draft) beginning in WWII
What does “WAAC” stand for? Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps
What does the term WAVES stand for? Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service
What does the term “Rosie the Riveter” mean/refer to? It refers to women working in war production jobs.
What was the “Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters”? The most powerful black-led organization in the US at the time, that asked the government to prevent discrimination in the expanding armed forces
What executive body did “Executive Order 8802” create? The order created the Fair Employment Practices Committee (later Commission)
Fair Employment Practices Committee federal agency established in 1941 to curb racial discrimination in war production jobs and government employment
Zoot Suit Riots race riots in June 1943, primarily centered in Los Angeles, in which American military personnel attacked Latinos
What do the terms “Issei” and Nisei” mean? “Issei”- first-generation immigrants who had arrived before 1924 and were by law “aliens ineligible for citizenship” “Nisei”- American-born Japanese who were American citizens
List three of the ten places where Japanese Internment camps were located (map pg 689) Tule Lake, California Heart Mountain, Wyoming Topaz, Utah
What does the term “Japanese Internment” mean/refer to? A federal government policy implemented by executive order through which Japanese Americans were forced to enter internment camps
What does the term “Tehran Conference” mean/refer to? Meeting in Tehran, Iran, in late November 1943 between Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-shek. The four leaders coordinated wartime strategy, including an eventual invasion of the French coast
What does the term “Operation Overlord” mean/refer to? U.S. and British invasion of France in June 1944 during WWII
What is D-Day? The day (June 6, 1944) in WWII on which Allied forces invaded northern France by means of beach landings in Normandy
What does the term "Wehrmacht" mean? Military machine that had been undefeated in Europe since 1939
What happened on December 7, 1941? Japanese airplanes bombed the American fleet at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
What did FDR ask for on December 8th? He asked for a declaration of war against Japan
What was the Phony War? It took place during the winter of 1939-1940. It's known as the "Phony War," because there was so little fighting. Britain and France waited for an attack they knew would come.
What was Vichy France? A puppet government led by Marshall Philippe Petain, governed by the southern part of France
Who ran in the November 1940 presidential election? Franklin Roosevelt (democrat) Wendell Willkie (republican)
What ended the Great Depression? The military preparation in 1940 and 1941
What happened in June 1941? Hitler suddenly attacked his erstwhile ally in Russia. The U.S. extended Lend-Lease aid to the Russians.
What happened in October 1941? U-boat attacked the U.S. destroyer Kearny, killing 11 sailors, the first U.S. casualties of the war
Who was Tojo and what did he do? He was the Prime Minister of Japan and he signed a formal alliance with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy
What was ABC-1 or American-British Conversation Number 1? It was an agreement that, in the event of a two-front war, which everyone hoped to avoid, the United States would focus first on joining Britain to defeat Germany
What are the 2 Naval battles in the Pacific that are important? The Battle of Coral Sea in May 1942 The Battle of Midway in June 1942
What was the Battle of Coral Sea? The U.S. and British forces prevented a Japanese advance on Papua New Guinea.
What was the Battle of Midway? It was fought between aircraft carriers. The U.S. new the battle was coming, because the U.S. broke the Japanese code. Japan lost 4 of their 6 aircraft carriers, and all of their planes and pilots.
Who was Carl Donitz? He was a German submarine commander who sank American shipping vessels along the U.S. coast.
What was Guadalcanal? It was the first attack by U.S. forces to try to regain the pacific. For the first time, the Japanese abandoned an island.
What was the women's role in supporting the war? 1. Some women enlisted in the military as nurses and support personnel. 2. They went to work in the war industries.
Who were the Tuskegee Airmen? African American pilots who were trained at the air base at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.
What was the Tydings Amendment? It exempted agricultural workers from the draft.
What were other reasons not to be drafted? -College students were able to differ joining until after they finished college. -People in essential war industries would be differed. -Conscientious objectors were exempted from the draft, because of religious training or belief that war was wrong.
What were the women's branches of the military called? -women's army corps (WACS) -Women accepted for voluntary emergency service (WAVES) [navy] -women's auxiliary service pilots. (WASPS) -women's reserved coastguard (SPARS)
What was the Fair Employment Practices Committee? It was established in 1941 to curb racial discrimination in war production jobs.
What was the March on Washington? It was a threatened march organized by the NAACP to protest discrimination within the war department and war production industry. The march was headed off by the Fair Employment Practices Committee.
What factors helped the US's war time production? -The U.S. had huge supplies of iron-ore, coal, and oil. -The United States had an attitude towards manufacturing that helped its success. We made fewer models at high volumes. (ex. liberty ship)
What was the Second Front? Russia wanted the allies to attack in France, but instead they attacked Italy.
Who was Dwight D. Eisenhower? A U.S. General who led the overall operations of Operation Overlord.
What was the Battle of the Bulge? A 1944-1945 battle in which Allied forces turned back the last major German offensive of World War II.
What happened on April 12, 1945? FDR died at Warms Spring, Georgia. Harry S. Truman becomes President
What ended the war in Europe? 1. Russian troops entered Berlin. 2. Hitler committed Suicide. 3. U.S. troops crossed the Elba River. These all caused Germany to surrender.
What is "Island-hop"? It was the U.S. military's decision to skip some Japanese held islands and hop from strategic island to strategic island to get closer to Japan, as fast as they could.
Why was the war in the Pacific especially brutal? The Japanese lived by a code that prohibited surrender.
What was the strategy for taking an island in the Pacific? 1. The landing area was bombarded by Navy Ships. 2. Planes dropped bomb after bomb, before ground troops would storm the beaches. 3. Once the island was secure, sea-bees would move in and build air fields.
What was a kamakazi? The pilots committed suicide, by using their planes as if they were bombs.
What was the Battle of Iwo Jima? It was an island in the Pacific with an important air field. It was difficult to take, because the Japanese had built underground tunnels all over the island.
What was the Manhattan Project and who headed it? The making of the atomic bomb. A lot of it was developed in las alamos. A number of scientists were Jewish refuges from Nazi Germany who worked on the project. It was led by Robert Oppenheimer.
What was the Enola Gay? It was the plane that dropped the bomb on Hiroshima.
What happened on August 15, 1945? Japan surrendered and this was the end of World War 2.
List 5 places where Japan attacked within hours of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Philippines, Aleutian Islands, Guam, Wake Island, United States.
When did US soldiers on Bataan and Corregidor surrender? In April and May 1942.
What executive body did executive order 8802 create? The Fair Employment Practices Committee
What does the term Anschluss mean/refer to? Refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
What does the term "Putsch" mean/refer to? Coup- A sudden violent & illegal seizure of power from a government.
What was the Beer Hall Putsch? An attempt by Hitler and the NSDAP to overthrow the Weimar Republic.
Who was the NSDAP? German Workers party
What happened to Hitler as a result of his participation in the Putsch? He plead guilty to treason, and sentenced to 5 years in prison, but only served 9 months.
What was the SA? The NSDAP & Paramilitary group.
What was the SS? Created in 1934 from the SA. These were the hyper Nazi people who did most of the persecution of the Jews.
What was the Communist party's group? Red Front Fighter's league.
When was Nazism founded? February of 1920, when the Nazi Party platform speech was given.
When did Hitler become Der fuhrer? February 27, 1925-- when the Nazi Party was reestablished.
Who was responsible for the German Reichstag building firebombing? Hitler and the Nazi Party
What was the Night of Long Knives? (June 1934) It was when all opposition within the Nazi party was eliminated.
What was the Pact of Steel? A non aggression pact with the soviet union.
What caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany? The invasion of Poland.
When did General MacArthur return to Corregidor, Philippine Islands? October 20, 1944.
How did "Navajo Code Talkers" contribute to the US war effort during WWII? They fought on Pacific islands, but by communicating in the native Navajo language, they were able to establish a way of communicating that the Japanese couldn't understand.
What was the NSDAP? National Socialist German Workers Party
Who founded the German Worker's Party in 1919? Anton Drexler.
What happened on February 24, 1920? Hitler delievered the Nazi Platform Speech. This is known as the "25 points."
What happened in 1921? Hitler was elected Party Chairman and leader of the Nazis.
Created by: kaylenta