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Federal Government

Final Chapters 9-13, 15, and 17

TermDefinition
bipartisanship a process of cooperation through compromise
divided government a condition in which one or more houses of the legislature is controlled by the party in opposition to the executive
first-past-the-post a system in which the winner of an election is the candidate who wins the greatest number of votes cast, also known as plurality voting
gerrymandering the manipulation of legislative districts in an attempt to favor a particular candidate
party platform the collection of a party's positions on issues it considers politically important
party polarization the shift of party positions from moderate towards ideological extremes
party realignment a shifting of party alliances within the electorate
party-in-government party identifiers who have been elected to office and are responsible for fulfilling the party's promises
party-in-the-electorate members of the voting public who consider themselves part of a political party or who consistently prefer the candidates of one party over the other
plurality voting the election rule by which the candidate with the most votes wins, regardless of vote share
political machine an organization that secures votes for a party's candidates or supports the party in other ways, usually in exchange for political favors such as a job in government
political parties organizations made up of groups of people with similar interests that try to directly influence public policy through their members who seek and hold public office
precinct the lowest level of party organization, usually organized around neighborhoods
proportional representation a party-based election rule in which the number of seats a party receives is a function of the share of votes it receives in an election
reapportionment the reallocation of House seats between the states to account for population changes
collective good a good such as public safety or clean air, often produced by government, that is generally available to the population as a whole
efficacy the belief that you make a difference and that government cares about you and your views
in-house lobbyist an employee or executive within an organization who works as a lobbyist on behalf of the organization
inside lobbying the act of contacting and taking the organization's message directly to lawmakers in an attempt to influence policy
iron triangle three-way relationship among congressional committees, interests groups, and the bureaucracy
lobbyist a person who represents an organization before government in an attempt to influence policy
outside lobbying the act of lobbying indirectly by taking the organization's message to the public, often through the use of the media and/or by issue press releases, in hopes that the public will then put pressure on lawmakers
particularized benefit a benefit that generally accrues to a narrow segment of society
pluralist a person who believes many groups healthily compete for access to decision-makers
purposive incentives benefits to overcome collective action problems that appeal to people's support of the issue or cause
revolving door laws laws that require a cooling-off period before government officials can register to lobby after leaving office
solidary incentives benefits based on the concept that people like to associate with those who are similar to them
voting cues sources—including fellow lawmakers, constituents, and interest groups—that lawmakers often use to help them decide how to vote, especially on unfamiliar issues
bicameralism the political process that results from dividing a legislature into two separate assemblies
bill proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature
collective representation the relationship between Congress and the United States as a whole, and whether the institution itself represents the American people
constituency the body of voters, or constituents, represented by a particular politician
delegate model of representation a model of representation in which representatives feel compelled to act on the specific stated wishes of their constituents
descriptive representation the extent to which a body of representatives represents the descriptive characteristics of their constituencies, such as class, race, ethnicity, and gender
enumerated powers the powers given explicitly to the federal government by the Constitution to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, raise and support armies, declare war, coin money, and conduct foreign affairs
filibuster a parliamentary maneuver used in the Senate to extend debate on a piece of legislation as long as possible, typically with the intended purpose of obstructing or killing it
implied powers the powers not specifically detailed in the U.S. Constitution but inferred as necessary to achieve the objectives of the national government
inherent powers the powers neither enumerated nor implied but assumed to exist as a direct result of the country's existence
the powers neither enumerated nor implied but assumed to exist as a direct result of the country's existence a legislative committee consisting of members from both chambers that investigates certain topics but lacks bill referral authority
pork-barrel politics federal spending intended to benefit a particular district or set of constituents
president pro tempore the senator who acts in the absence of the actual president of the Senate, who is also the vice president of the United States; the president pro tempore is usually the most senior senator of the majority party
representation an elected leader's looking out for his or her constituents while carrying out the duties of the office
select committee a small legislative committee created to fulfill a specific purpose and then disbanded; also called an ad hoc, or special, committee
Speaker of the House the presiding officer of the House of Representatives and the leader of the majority party; the Speaker is second in the presidential line of succession, after the vice president
standing committee a permanent legislative committee that meets regularly
surge-and-decline theory a theory proposing that the surge of stimulation occurring during presidential elections subsides during midterm elections, accounting for the differences we observe in turnouts and results
trustee model of representation a model of representation in which representatives feel at liberty to act in the way they believe is best for their constituents
whip in the House and in the Senate, a high leadership position whose primary duty is to enforce voting discipline in the chambers and conferences
bully pulpit Theodore Roosevelt's notion of the presidency as a platform from which the president could push an agenda
cabinet a group of advisers to the president, consisting of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch who head the fifteen executive departments
executive agreement an international agreement between the president and another country made by the executive branch and without formal consent by the Senate
Executive Office of the President the administrative organization that reports directly to the president and made up of important offices, units, and staff of the current president and headed by the White House chief of staff
executive order a rule or order issued by the president without the cooperation of Congress and having the force of law
executive privilege the president's right to withhold information from Congress, the judiciary, or the public
impeachment the act of charging a government official with serious wrongdoing, which in some cases may lead to the removal of that official from office
king caucus an informal meeting held in the nineteenth century, sometimes called a congressional caucus, made up of legislators in the Congress who met to decide on presidential nominees for their respective parties
line-item veto a power created through law in 1996 and overturned by the Supreme Court in 1998 that allowed the president to veto specific aspects of bills passed by Congress while signing into law what remained
Office of Management and Budget office within the Executive Office of the President charged with producing the president's budget, overseeing its implementation, and overseeing the executive bureaucracy
rally around the flag effect a spike in presidential popularity during international crises
signing statement a statement a president issues with the intent to influence the way a specific bill the president signs should be enforced
amicus curiae literally a "friend of the court" and used for a brief filed by someone who is interested in but not party to a case
appellate court a court that reviews cases already decided by a lower or trial court and that may change the lower court's decision
appellate jurisdiction the power of a court to hear a case on appeal from a lower court and possibly change the lower court's decision
brief a written legal argument presented to a court by one of the parties in a case
civil law a non-criminal law defining private rights and remedies
docket the list of cases pending on a court's calenda
judicial activism a judicial philosophy in which a justice is more likely to overturn decisions or rule actions by the other branches unconstitutional, especially in an attempt to broaden individual rights and liberties
judicial restraint a judicial philosophy in which a justice is more likely to let stand the decisions or actions of the other branches of government
judicial review the power of the courts to review actions taken by the other branches of government and the states and to rule on whether those actions are constitutional
precedent the principles or guidelines established by courts in earlier cases that frame the ongoing operation of the courts, steering the direction of the entire system
stare decisis the principle by which courts rely on past decisions and their precedents when making decisions in new cases
bureaucracy an administrative group of nonelected officials charged with carrying out functions connected to a series of policies and programs
bureaucrats the civil servants or political appointees who fill nonelected positions in government and make up the bureaucracy
civil servants the individuals who fill nonelected positions in government and make up the bureaucracy; also known as bureaucrats
whistleblower a person who publicizes misdeeds committed within a bureaucracy or other organization
balance of power a situation in which no one nation or region is much more powerful militarily than any other in the world
congressional executive agreement an international agreement that is not a treaty and that is negotiated by the president and approved by a simple majority of the House and Senate
containment the effort by the United States and Western European allies, begun during the Cold War, to prevent the spread of communism
foreign policy a government's goals in dealing with other countries or regions and the strategy used to achieve them
How many party systems have there been in US history? 5 or 6, depending on who you ask
A party system is The different historical eras as defined by which parties were active at the time
___________ are held to choose candidates who will then run in the later general election primary elections
Which of the following are reasons that parties exist? Choose all that apply to facilitate policymaking to facilitate collective action in the electoral process to deal with the problems of politicians' ambition
The goal of a political party is to to win elections
An ___________ is an organized individuals that make policy-related appeals to government. interest group
A combination of interest groups, congress, and the bureaucracy is sometimes called what? iron triangle
What are the 2 main things that interest groups do when they interact with the government? shape policies, gather information to provide to elected officials
A collective action problem is defined as problems that occur because people should work together, but don't
The _______ is one of the larges interest groups in the United States American Association of Retired Persons
Which of the following is a way that lobbyists can influence policymakers? ensure those policymakers that they will raise money and support their next campaign for reelection.
How old do you have to be to run for Congress? 25 House, 30 Senate
Congress is the most important branch of the US governmen
Congress uses the committee system because It is easier for small groups to write legislation than a large group
Who elects the Speaker of the House? The majority party
After a bill is introduced, what is the next step? It is referred to a committee
Which of the following are examples of the types of Presidential Powers? Executive Legislative Judicial Diplomatic
Which of the following are examples of the President's diplomatic powers? Legitimize a nation-state appoint ambassadors make treaties
The President has both _______ and ________ powers expressed, implied
Which of the following Presidential powers are not specifically written in the Constitution? executive order
What is the "bully pulpit?" The use of the media to mobilize the public
________, __________, and ___________ are the three main strategies of the President. party leadership, mobilizing public opinion, and administrative
_________ is the ability to look at laws passed by Congress, state legislatures, and executive actions judicial review
There are _____ US district courts, with approximate ____ judges. 94, 640
________ means that in order to bring a case, the parties must have a substantial stake in the outcome standing
Which of the followings types of cases do the federal courts have original jurisdiction? cases involving the consitution
A(s) _____ contains difference legal, economic, or historical arguments. amicus curiae
In order to get to SCOTUS, you have to have exhausted your appeals at all of levels of the state and/or federal systm. True
What is the name of a formal request that SCOTUS hear your case? writ of certiorari
The Supreme Court hears around ____ cases per year 80
The Supreme Court can review ___________, including _________ Presidential actions, executive privalege
Judicial review involves which of the following examining the validity of laws
Precedent can constrain the decisions that Judges are able to make. True
The main reason that bureaucracies exist is.. They make running the government simpler and more efficient.
____________ is a bureaucratic action that settles disputes administrative adjudication
When bureaucratic agencies create regulations, they are acting in a legislative manner True
Civil service exams are competitive exams used to determine ability and take politics out of hiring for bureaucratic agencies
Bureaucracies are not mentioned in the Constitution, their power is a form of ________, granted by _________. delegated power, Congress
Bureaucratic experts are often relied upon by the President and Congress to determine how policies should be implemented and enforced True
The _______ appoints the heads of bureaucratic agencies. These selections must be affirmed by the __________. President, senate
Which of the following is an example of how Bureaucracies maintain the Union? revenue collection
Bureaucratic agencies are funded by ________, which are determined by ________. appropriations, congress
Which of the following is not part of foreign policy: education
Which part of the government has the most influence in Foreign Policy? Executive branch
_________is the collection of policies that determines relations with other countries: Foreign Policy
________ are members of the voting public who consider themselves part of a political party or who consistently prefer the candidates of one party over the other party-in-the-electorate
A shifting of party alliances within the electorate is known as: party realignment
________ is a condition in which one or more houses of the legislature is controlled by the party in opposition to the executive. divided government
There are only two political parties in the United States. T/F False
Which of the following does not represent a major contributing factor in party realignment? demographic shifts
Organizations made up of groups of people with similar interests that try to directly influence public policy through their members who seek and hold public office are not as: political parties
Which supporter of federalism warned people about the dangers of political parties? George Washington
In the first-past-the-post system a candidate needs a majority of votes to win. T/F False
Party polarization is the shift of party positions from moderate towards ideological extremes. T/F True
The reallocation of House seats between the states to account for population changes happens after every presidential election. T/F False
In which type of electoral system do voters select the party of their choice rather than an individual candidate? proportional representation
____________ is a system in which the winner of an election is the candidate who wins the greatest number of votes cast. first-past-the-post
Someone who lobbies on behalf of a company that he or she works for as part of his or her job is ________. an in house lobbyist
Which of the following is the best example of a solidary benefit? joining a group to be with others like you
Which statement is true? Collective goods offer broadly distributed benefits, while private goods offer particularized benefits
Why might several competing corporations join together in an association? because there is often strength in numbers because they often have common issues that may affect an entire industry because they can all benefit from governmental policies
Efficacy is the belief that you make a difference and that government cares about you and your viewsthe belief that you make a difference and that government cares about you and your views. T/F True
What type of incentives appeal to someone’s concern about a cause? purposive incentives
Revolving door laws are designed to do which of the following? prevent lawmakers from utilizing their legislative relationships by becoming lobbyists immediately after leaving office
Which of the following is an aspect of iron triangles? a symbiotic relationship among Congressional committees, executive agencies, and interest groups
What is a difference between a PAC and a super PAC? PACs can contribute directly to candidates, but super PACs cannot
Material incentives are substantive monetary or physical benefits given to group members to help over come collective action problems. T/F True
_________ is a benefit that generally accrues to a narrow segment of society particularized benefit
Sources such as fellow lawmakers, constituents, and interest groups that lawmakers use to help them decide how to vote, especially on unfamiliar issues are known as: voting cues
________ is a person who represents an organization before government in an attempt to influence policy lobbyist
In the House, the majority leader is the functional leader. T/F False
Which of the following is an implied power of Congress? the power to regulate the sale of tobacco in the states
the political process that results from dividing a legislature into two separate assemblies is called _________ bicameralism
_________ is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives speaker
Stopping a filibuster requires that ________. the chamber votes for cloture
The Great Compromise successfully resolved differences between ________. large and small states
While each state has two senators, members of the House are apportioned ________ according to the state’s population
The powers given explicitly to the federal government by the Constitution to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, raise and support armies, declare war, coin money, and conduct foreign affairs are known as enumerated powers
A select committee is different from a standing committee because ________ a select committee is convened for a specific and temporary purpose, while a standing committee is permanent
Saying a bill is being marked up is just another way to say it is being ________ amended
House leaders are more powerful than Senate leaders because of ________. the majoritarian nature of the House—a majority can run it like a cartel
A joint committee is: a legislative committee consisting of members from both chambers that investigates certain topics
The process of redistricting can present problems for congressional representation because ________ districts are often drawn to benefit partisan groups
The saying “All politics is local” roughly means ________. the local constituents tend to care about things that affect them
________ is a model of representation in which representatives feel at liberty to actin the way they believe is best for their constituents. trustee
A very challenging job for new presidents is to______ nominate and gain confirmation for their cabinet and hundreds of other officials
Among the powers of the president is the line item veto. T/F False
The office charged with producing the president’s budget, overseeing its implementation, and overseeing the executive is called: Office of Management and Budget
President Theodore Roosevelt’s concept of the bully pulpit was the office’s ________. premier position to pressure through public appeal
The people who make up the modern president’s cabinet are the heads of the major federal departments and ________. must be confirmed by the Senate
Which of the following is an example of an executive agreement? The president signs legally binding nuclear arms terms with Iran without seeking congressional approval.
A treaty and executive agreement are the same thing. T/F False
How did the election of 1824 change the way presidents were selected? The selection of the candidate with fewer electoral votes triggered the rise of party control over nominations.
Which of the following is an unintended consequence of the rise of the primary and caucus system? Sometimes candidates unpopular with the party leadership reach the top
The passage of the Tenure of Office Act of 1867 was just one instance in a long line of ________. struggles for power between the president and the Congress
The list of cases pending on a court’s calendar is known as: docket
In Federalist No. 78, Alexander Hamilton characterized the judiciary as the ________ branch of government. least dangerous
Of all the court cases in the United States, the majority are handled ________. at the state level
One of the main ways interest groups participate in Supreme Court cases is by ________ filing amicus curiae briefs
A concurring opinion is an opinion written by a justice who disagrees with the majority opinion of the Court. T/F False
Besides the Supreme Court, there are lower courts in the national system called ________. district and circuit courts
The Supreme Court’s power of judicial review ________. enables it to declare acts of the other branches unconstitutional
A case will be placed on the Court’s docket when ________ justices agree to do so. four
Both state and federal courts hear matters that involve ________ both civil and criminal law
A written legal argument presented to a court by one of the parties in a case is called a _________. brief
In standing by precedent, a judge relies on the principle of ________. stare decisis
The Supreme Court most typically functions as ________. an appeals court
The power of a court to hear a case for the first time is called: original jurisdiction
The lawyer who represents the federal government and argues cases before the Supreme Court is the ________ solicitor general
The Supreme Court consists of ________. one chief justice and eight associate justices
When a Supreme Court ruling is made, justices may write a ________ to show they agree with tthe majority but for different reasons. concurring opinion
The justices of the Supreme Court are ________. nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate
Civil law is non-criminal law defining private rights and remedies.T/F True
The Freedom of Information Act of 1966 helps citizens exercise oversight over the bureaucracy by ________ opening government records to citizen scrutiny
The “spoils system” allocated political appointments on the basis of ________. party loyalty
The Civil Service Commission was created by the ________ Pendleton Act of 1883
The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 created the Office of Personnel Management and the ________. Merit Systems Protection Board
Which describes the ideal bureaucracy according to Max Weber? an apolitical, hierarchically organized agency
Which of the following models of bureaucracy best accounts for the way bureaucracies tend to push Congress for more funding each year? the acquisitive model
An example of a government corporation is ________. Amtrak
During George Washington’s administration, there were ________ cabinet positions. 4
Two recent periods of large-scale bureaucratic expansion were ________. the 1930s and the 1960s
When reformers speak of bureaucratic privatization, they mean all the following processes except ________ whistleblowing
a person who publicizes misdeeds committed within a bureaucracy or other organization is known as: whistleblower
Bureaucrats are civil servants. T/F True
The War Powers Resolution ________ set limits on presidential war powers
Why do House members and senators tend to be less active on foreign policy matters than domestic ones? Constituents are more directly affected by domestic policy topics than foreign ones.
________ is a policy in which a country allows the unfettered flow of goods and services between itself and other countries free trade
A sole executive agreement is likely to be in effect longer than is a treaty. T/F False
The U.S. policy of containment during the Cold War related to keeping ________. communism from spreading
All the following are examples of sharply focused foreign policy outputs except ________. international agreements
Neoconservativism is an isolationist foreign policy approach of a nation keeping to itself and engaging less internationally. T/F False
The Vietnam War was an example of containment policy. T/F True
The goals of U.S. foreign policy include ________. keeping the country safe securing access to foreign markets protecting human rights
Which of the following is not a foreign policy type? bureaucratic oversight
The situation in which no one nation or region is much more powerful militarily than any other in the world is known as: balance of power
In terms of formal powers in the realm of foreign policy, ________ the president and Congress share power
The federal budget process matters in foreign policy for all the following reasons except ________. the budget for every presidential action has to be approved in advance
Created by: vtlove116