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Endo

Endocrinolgy

QuestionAnswer
What is a hormone? A chemical secreted into bodily fluids (blood) by a group of cells to another group of cells where it produces an effect.
What is a target tissue? Tissues that are effected by a particular hormone via specific receptor for that hormone.
What hormones are produced in the Anterior Pituitary? MSH, FSH, Prolactin, GH, LH, TSH, ACTH (My Front Pituitary Gland Lets Things Accumulate)
What hormones are produced in the Posterior Pituitary? ADH, OXY
What hormones are produced in the Thyroid? Calcitonin, Tri-iodothyronine(T3), Thyroxine(T4) Tetra-iodothyronine.
What hormones are produced in the parathyroid? PTH
What hormones are produced in the adrenal cortex? Aldosterone, Cortisol
What hormones are produced in the adrenal medulla? EPI, NE
What hormones are produced in the Pancreas? Insulin, Glucagon
What hormones are produced in the Testes? Testosterone
What hormones are produced in the ovaries? Estrogen, Progesterone
What hormones are produced by the placenta? Estrogen, Progesterone, hCG(human chorionic gonadotropin) hPL (human Placental Lactogen)
Steroid hormones? Cortisol, Aldosterone, Progesterone, Estrogen, Testosterone (CAPET=roids)
What are hormones made from? Lipid soluble cholesterol
Which hormones are Tyrosine based? T3, T4, EPI, NE
Where are protein and peptide hormones produced? RER
Where are pro-hormones produced? ER
From ER to__________.(next step for peptide hormones) Golgi Apparatus
Where is EPI and NE formed? Synthesized in cytoplasm and absorbed into preformed storage vesicles.
How do steroid hormones differ from others in storage? Small amounts of the hormone are stored, large amounts of precursors (cholesterol) are stored in the cell
How long until hormone secretion is increased when stimulating adrenal medullary hormone? 1 second
How long do the hormonal effects last? Peak after 1 minute
How long until hormonal secretion is increased when stimulating TSH? 30 minutes
How long do effects of TSH last? 6 weeks
What receptors are on outside of cell? protein/peptide hormone and catecholamine receptors
What receptors are in cytoplasm? All steroids minus estrogen
What receptors are in nucleus? Estrogen, T3, T4.
What is the function of cyclic AMP (cAMP)? PRO synth, activate other enzymes, alter permeability, secretion, and smooth muscle contraction
What does up-regulation mean? increased number of receptors
From what embryologic tissue does the anterior pituitary derive? Rathke’s pouch or oral epithelium
From what embryologic tissue does the posterior pituitary derive? Neural ectoderm
Pituitary aka's. (3) Ant. lobe = Pars distalis = adenohypophysis. Int. lobe = Pars intermedia Post. lobe = Pars nervosa = neurohypophysis.
Ant. Pituitary cell types (3) acidophils, basophils, chromophobes (ABC)
What cell type is a lactotrope? Acidophil secretes Prolactin
What cell type is a somatotrope? Acidophil secretes GH (somatotropin)
What 3 pituitary cell types are considered Basophils? Corticotrope = corticotropin = ACTH + cortisol Thyrotrope = Thyrotropin(TSH) = T3, T4 Gonadotrope = Gonadotropin = FSH + LH
What is a chromophobe? Non-secretory cell, undifferentiated
What are 4 hypothalmic hormones? TRH, CRH, GHRH, GnRH, Somatostatin, Dopamine
Name 2 inhibitory functions of the hypothalamus? Somatostatin decreases growth hormone Dopamine decreases prolactin
What is TRH and what does it do? Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone increases Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH-Thyrotropin) secretion from Thyrotrope-Basophil
What is CRH and what does it do? Corticotropin Releasing Hormone increases AdrenoCorticoTropin Hormone(Corticotropin) secretion from Corticotrope-Basophil
What is GHRH and what does it do? Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone increases Growth Hormone (GH-somatotropin) secretion from Somatotrope-Acidophil
What is GnRH and what does it do? Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone increases Gonadotropins (FSH + LH) secretion from Gonadotrope-Basophil
What are some basic actions of growth hormone? Hypertrophy -increased cell size Hyperplasia – increased # of cells
46. How does GH change metabolism It increases protein synthesis, increases fat mobilization and decreases the use of carbohydrate
47. What is the effect of GH on protein deposition It increases protein synthesis by ribosomes, increases transcription (mRNA), increases protein transport through cell membranes and decreases catabolism
48. What is the effect of GH on cartilage and bone growth It stimulates the liver to produce IGF’s that stimulate growth
49 What is the effect of GH on fat metabolism It increases the use of fat for energy by increasing fat mobilization
50 What is the effect of GH on Carbohydrates It increases blood glucose, decreases glucose uptake of the cells, increased glycogen deposition, and decreased use of glucose for energy.
51. How is GH regulated and When is it highest It is regulated by negative feedback and by circadian rhythm (increased GH during 1st two hours of sleep)
52. Who has the highest levels of GH Children/adolescents – 6 ng/ml (Adults 1.5 - 3 ng/ml)
53. When does GH levels increase Starvation, Hypoglycemia, decr. plasma fatty acids, exercise, and stress
54. Where is GH catabolized It is broken down in the proximal tubules of the kidney
55. What would early onset of GH deficiency cause Pituitary dwarfism 1/3 have only GH deficiency = normal sexual maturity
56. What are the causes of adult onset panhypopituitarism Chromophobe tumor, craniopharyngioma, or thrombosis of pituitary blood vessels
57. What are the effects of panhypopituitarism There is a loss of sexual function, hypothyroidism, decreased cortisol, and a weight gain (fat storage)
58. What does an oversecretion of GH cause Gigantism (if before adolescence), hyperglycemia, acromegaly (if after adolescence) and even death {overactive acidophils}
59. What are the symptoms of acromegaly There is a thickening of bones (membranous and cranial), prominence of the supraorbital ridges, enlargement of the hands, feet, lower jaw, nose, and ears, kyphosis, visceromegaly and a decreased life expectancy
60. What are the major glands that regulate growth Anterior pituitary (GH), thyroid (T3, T4), pancreas (insulin), liver (IGF’s-aka somatomedin) and gonads (androgens)
61. What does the liver contribute to the regulation of growth It contributes somatomedins (IGF, IGF- 1 post-natal/Somatomedin C, IGF-2 pre-natal/Somatomedin A)
62. Which hormones are most important for fetal growth/fetal growth regulators Insulin & IGF–2-Somatomedin A [from mother,self,placenta]
63. What are some forms of endocrine dwarfism They are pituitary dwarfs, cretinism, Laron dwarf, and African pygmy
64. What is cretinism It is the result of early thyroid deficiency (mental retardation)
65. What causes cretinism Hypothyroidism
66. What causes Laron dwarfism A lack of GH receptors (norm GH)=decreased IGF; it is an autosomal recessive trait
67. What causes African pygmies size (~ 4’ tall) A deficient level of IGF-1 (somatomedin C)
68. What is most important for fetal growth IGF–2 and insulin
69. Aka’s for IGF-1 and IGF-2 IGF-1= somatomedin C; IGF–2 = somatomedin A
70. What does mother’s milk contain Steroids, prolactin, insulin, IGF’s
71.What is the function of ADH Increase amount of water reabsorption in the kidneys (conserve water), response to atrial input via baroreceptors
72. What is another name for ADH vasopressin
73. How is ADH regulated Neurons in ant.Hypothalamus are sensitive to osmolarity increases in the ECF, increase ADH, kidney’s reabsorb more water
74. What is the half-life of ADH 18 minutes
75. What are some factors that increase ADH secretion Anxiety, trauma, pain, morphine, nicotine, tranquilizers, some anesthetics, and angiotensins
76. What are some factors that decrease ADH secretion Alcohol because it suppresses activity of neurons (diuretic)
77. What is the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion Excess ADH usually from a tumor, leads to hyponatremia
78. what occurs for deficiency of ADH Diabetes Insipidus (-ADH) Nephrogenic DI (-ADH receptors)
79. Effect of Oxytocin Effect on Uterus. Uterine contractions during labor. Direct myometrium. Other effects are on limbic system in both men and women increased by touch- reflects on bonding and trust.
80. what is regulation of Oxytocin + Feedback – stretch from pressure on cervix. Pressure receptor in nipples cause milk ejection.
81. what is pitocin and its uses Control endometrial bleeding after giving birth. Stimulate onset of labor.
82. what is the make up of posterior lobe hormones ADH and oxytoxin are peptide protein
Created by: lerch