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Unit 6


What were some physical obstacles to building US infrastructure? (ex. Roads, Canals, Railroads) Plateaus (Alleghany/Cumberland) Broad rivers with strong currents Mountains (Appalachians)
What were some political factors involved in building US infrastructure? Slavery (mainly), different economies, different views on tariffs/taxes,
What were some economic factors involved in building US infrastructure? In the early 1800s, there were 3 major US regions developing, each with their own interests and opinions on how to improve the US economy.
What was Henry Clay's "American System"? Clay proposed a plan for economic development that would benefit all 3 regions of the country.
Parts of Henry Clay's American System -High tariffs on imported manufactured goods buy agricultural goods from the West and South: cotton for textile mills and food for the increased population. - manufactured goods from the Northeast, starting this cycle of prosperity over again.
What were the causes of Northern European immigration to the US? Famine, oppression, cheap land, jobs
What were the effects of Northern European immigration to the US? Did work in factories, population of cities skyrocketed, ghettos were created, did work deemed "too dangerous" for slaves (building infrastructure)
What were the results in relation to the US of the Irish Great Potato Famine? Over a million Irish immigrated to the US, mostly to cities because of economic and social pressures
What were some beliefs unique to the Second Great Awakening? Predestination was false, you chose where you go after death; new types of churches
What was the Temperance Movement? An organized attempt to end alcohol abuse and the problems created by it. People drank so much alcohol because it was cheaper than milk or beer, and it was safer to drink than the often contaminated water.
Describe prison reforms after the Second Great Awakening. Prison was overcrowded, poorly heated, poorly fed. It housed men, children, and women in the same facility no matter their crime. After the SGA, advocates such as Dorothea Dix advocated for better prison conditions.
Describe mental health reforms after the Second Great Awakening. People with mental illnesses were put in prison since there were no special facilities. Dorthoea Dix proposed institutions founded for people with mental illnesses, their purpose was to treat people rather than contain them
Describe education reforms after the Second Great Awakening. property requirements to vote were removed, uneducated people could now vote. Reformers thought all voters should be educated to make informed about gov't. Mass was the 1st state to require children to attend school and provide public school for all kids.
How were tent meetings influenced by the Second Great Awakening? Large festivals (revivals) with vibrant preachers that might have lasted several days.
How did the Second Great Awakening influence the establishment of new churches? New divisions of churches (Seventh Day Adventurists, Latter Day Saints, etc.)
How did Horace Mann influence the Second Great Awakening? Horace Mann was a major reformer of education from Massachusetts.
How did Dorothea Dix influence the Second Great Awakening? Dorothea Dix was a major advocate for prison and mental health reform.
How did the Second Great Awakening influence Temperance societies? Encouraged prohibition, a ban on making and consuming all alcohol
What was the Women's Suffrage Movement? The main purpose was to get equal rights for women. (especially voting)
What was life like for women in the 19th century? Few legal/civil rights, could not vote or hold political office, husband owns their property and wages, husband can hit wife as long as they do not leave a mark, divorce always favored the husband.
Who were some important advocates for women's suffrage? Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton
What was the "Declaration of Sentiments"? Written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, it was strongly based on the Declaration of Independence, listed some grievances of women, mainly says that women have suffered at the hands of men for too long, and deserve equal rights.
What were the beliefs of transcendentalism? believed in individuals doing what they believed was right rather than what society expected of them, nature was a path to experiencing the divine in this life, the only way to find truth was to transcend social norms, and all people were generally good.
What was individualism? Individualism is a belief that values the worth of each person.
Describe the development of the agrican (agriculture) economy in the South Before the cotton gin, tobacco was the main crop grown in the South. Cotton was not grown as much since the seeds were very labor intensive to remove. When the cotton gin was invented, it became profitable and grown more often.
Which states were major producers of cotton? Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia
What was the significance of cotton in the South? Caused an increase in slavery; very profitable for the South's economy
What was the significance of the cotton gin in the South? It made cotton easier to produce and much more profitable.
What was the role of Memphis as the "cotton capital of the South?" Processed cotton was shipped to Memphis via the Mississippi River; a central exchange for cotton allowed buyers and sellers to get the best possible prices
What was the "Second Middle Passage"? The forced migration of sold slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South for cotton farming.
What were some characteristics of white southern society? Worked in fields, kids did not get education (75% of people were small farms with no slaves); family farms, yet they liked slavery
How did the physical environment influence events and conditions prior to the Civil War? Many large farms had several hundred slaves, and liked slavery and did not want it to be abolished
What were the New Madrid Earthquakes? Very damaging and very frequent earthquakes in Missouri from 1811 to 1812.
Why was nullification and secession a problem? Southern states did not like import tariffs, and decided to nullify (invalidate) that law in their state so they didn't have to pay, the federal government said that was treason.
What were some arguments for and against nullification? People for it said the states kept the power of nullification when the Union was formed, but op posers said the Union was formed by the American people, not individual states.
What is the difference between nullification and secession? Nullification cancels federal law, secession is when a state leaves the union and becomes independent.
What was the "corrupt bargain"? In the election of 1824, Jackson got the most popular votes, Henry Clay made a deal with John Q. Adams in which if Clay (the House speaker) told the House to vote for Adams, he would make Clay the Secretary of State.
What was the Jacksonian Democracy? It was the bringing of the common man into the government through the Spoils System. (Rewarding government jobs to officials of his party that won the election.) He said this was to allow the common man say in government
What was Jackson's battle with the Bank of the United States? Jackson hated the National Bank. (It allowed a small group of rich people to enrich themselves at the expense of ordinary people.) So, when the Bank sent the recharter bill to him in 1832, he vetoed it, officially killing the Second National Bank.
What did Sequoyah contribute to the Cherokee? Sequoyah was a trader, blacksmith, and silversmith that created an alphabet for the Cherokee language
What was the relationship between the US and the Cherokee? Beginning in 1791, the U.S. made several treaties with the Cherokee, recognizing them as independent. In 1830, Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act which forcibly removed them to Oklahoma.
What did the Indian Removal Act of 1830 do? Relocated the Southeastern Tribes to the West, forced Native Americans off their land.
What was the Manifest Destiny? Manifest destiny is the idea that the fate of the US is to expand and become a transcontinental power (cover the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific).
Why did people move west? Offered opportunity; people bought cheap land to sell later for a profit.
What were economic incentives to move west? Economic incentives included cheap and fertile farmland, mineral resources, gold, timber, bison, and other commodities
How did Manifest Destiny change American character? part of the "great experiment of liberty." Many believed it was the mission of the US to bring democracy to people across the continent and across the world.
What was American settlement in Texas like? The Spanish wanted Texas to grow, so they gave away land to people who agreed to bring families. Cheap land to people who learned Spanish, became Mexican citizens, & converted to Catholicism.
What caused the Texas War of Independence? Santa Anna (became dictator and overthrew constitution) Americans flooded into Texas
What was the role of David Crockett and Sam Houston in the Texas War of Independence? Frontiersman that were part of the force to defend the Alamo led by William Travis. When Texas became independent, Sam Houston became president and asked the US to become a state.
What was the legacy of the Alamo? Small fort in San Antonio, Santa Anna's army breached the walls, very few survivors.
What was it like for mountain men and trail blazers moving west? It was possible to make a living from the wilderness. Mountain men learned how to navigate the mountains and the desert from Natives.
What was it like for Mormons moving west? In 1844, Joseph Smith was killed, and Brigham Young decided to move the Mormons to Utah. Mormons were persecuted for their beliefs in eastern states.
What was it like for missionaries moving west? Freedom to practice their religion in the West and share it. Freedom from persecution in the East.
What was it like for settlers moving west? tons of cheap and fertile land available.
What was the impact of the Oregon Trail on westward expansion? Navigable, reasonably safe route to the West. Encouraged more people to move West.
What was the impact of John C. Frémont on westward expansion? Explored the western territories and became known as "The Pathfinder". Helped map the Oregon Trail. He published accounts of his journeys, which got people excited to move west.
Describe James K. Polk's "dark horse" nomination When Martin Van Buren lost Democratic support, unknown candidate Polk was nominated for the Democratic party and went on to win the election of 1844.
How did James K. Polk's presidency impact settlements in Oregon? In 1846, Polk negotiated a treaty with Britain, the Oregon country boundary is lowered to 49' north.
What was the annexation of Texas? Andrew Jackson refused to annex independent Texas, but "manifest destiny" candidate James K. Polk did in 1845.
What was the Mexican-American War? US vs. Mexico; US gained California, Arizona, N. Mexico
What was the Mexican Cession? Mexican territory surrendered to the United States at the end of the war with Mexico
What was the Wilmont Proviso? Congress would ban slavery in all territory that might become part of the US as a result of the Mexican-American War. It was defeated in Congress.
When was the start of the California Gold Rush? On January 24, 1848, the California gold rush began when gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill. As the news of the discovery spread, some 300,000 people came from the rest of the US and abroad.
What were the positive impacts of the California Gold Rush? New towns and cities were chartered. Roads, churches, and schools were born. Improved transportation between California and the east coast. All of these developments led to the statehood of California on 9/9/1850.
What were the negative impacts of the California Gold Rush? Native Americans became the victims of disease, starvation, and genocidal attacks. Many people that journeyed to California from around the world never made it.
Who was John Sutter? The owner of Sutter's Mill, where gold in California was first found, the birthing plact of the California Gold Rush.
Who were the 49ers? Early gold seekers (1849) in search of gold, hope, and opportunity. (and to strike it rich)
Created by: jefffrye
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