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Chapter 20

TermDefinition
Old order the political and social system in place in France before the Revolution
King Louis XVI King of France from 1774 to 1792, his unpopular policies helped trigger the French Revolution
Marie-Antoinette Queen of France, wife of King Louis XVI, she was queen during the French Revolution and disliked by many French citizens
First Estate in pre-Revolution France, the clergy
Second Estate in pre-Revolution France, the nobles
Third Estate in pre-Revolution France, the bourgeoisie, artisans, workers,and peasants
bourgeoisie the urban middleclass, merchants, professionals, and manufacturers
sans culottes "without breeches" , a radical group of shopkeepers and wage earners during the French Revolution who wanted a larger voice in government and an end `to food shortages
Declarartion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen a document that laid out the basic principles of the French Revolution- liberty, equality, and fraternity
Maximilien Robespierre Leading figure of the French Revolution, he was known for his intense dedication to the Revolution. He became increasingly radical and led the National Convention during its most bloodthirsty time
guilotine a device used during the French Revolution for beheading people
counterrevolution a revolution against a government established by a revolution
Reign of Terror a period during the French Revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens
Napoleon Bonaparte general , Emperor of France, he seized power in a coup d'etat in 1799, he led French armies in conquering much of Europe
Admiral Horatio Nelson British admiral, he defeated Napoleon's navy in Egypt and again at the Battle of Trafalgar
coup d'etat "stroke of state" , the sudden overthrow of a government by force
plebiscite the procedure used to submit the constitution of a new government to the people for a yes-or-no vote
Continental System the system of commercial blockades of Britain and continental Europe set in place by Napoleon with the intent of destroying Britain's economy
nationalism sense of pride and devotion to one's nation
Czar Alexander I Czar of Russia from 1855 to 1851, after the defeat of the Napoleon's army in 1812 he became one of the most powerful leaders in Europe
Hundred Days period that marks the time between Napoleon's return to Paris from Elba (March 20 ), his final defeat at Waterloo( JUne 18), and the restoration of King Louis XVIII (June 28)
Duke of Wellington British soldier and statesman, he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
Prince Klemens von Metterninch Austrian statesman and diplomat, he was the Austrian representative at the Congress of Vienna
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand French statesman and diplomat, he was one of the negotiators at the Congress of Vienna. He represented France on behalf of Louis XVIII
indemnity compensation that is paid to a nation for the damage inflicted upon it in a war
reactionary an extremist who not only opposes change but also wants to undo certain changes
radical a person with extreme views
Created by: yovanaarellano