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ch.20

vocab

TermDefinition
Old Order the political and social system in place in France before the Revolution.
King Louis XVI King of France; his unpopular policies helped trigger the French Revolution. Deposed by the National Convention, he was executed by guillotine.
Marie-Antoinette Queen of France, wife of Kings Louis XVI; she was queen during the French Revolution and disliked by many French citizens. She was found guilty of treason and guillotined.
First Estate in pre-Revolution France, the clergy.
Second Estate in pre-Revolution France, the nobles.
Third estate in pre-Revolution France, the bourgeoisie, artisans, workers, and peasants.
bourgeoisie the urban middle class; merchants, professionals, and manufacturers
declaration Rights of Man and of the Citizen a document that laid out the basic principles of the French Revolution--liberty, equality, and fraternity
Radical a person with extreme views
Maximilien Robespierre Leading figure of the French Revolution; he was known for his intense dedication to the Revolution. He became increasingly radical and led the National Convention during its most bloodthirsty time
guillotine a device used during the French Revolution for beheading people
counterrevolution a revolution against a government established by a revolution
Reign of Terror a period during the French Revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens
Napoleon Bonaparte general; Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d´état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled on the island of Elba.
Admiral Horatio Nelson British admiral; he defeated Napoleon´s navy in Egypt and again at the Battle of Trafalgar
coup d'etat ¨stroke of state¨; the sudden overthrow of a government by force
plebiscite the procedure used to submit the constitution of a new government to the people for a yes-or-no vote
Continental System the system of commercial blockades of Britain and continental Europe set in place by Napoleon with the intent of destroying Britain´s economy
nationalism sense of pride and devotion to one´s nation
Czar Alexander I Czar of Russia from 1801 to 1825; after the defeat of Napoleon´s army in 1812, he became one of the most powerful leaders in Europe, supporting the suppression of all revolutionary movements in Russia and Europe
Hundred Days period that marks the time between napoleon´s return to Paris from Elba (March 20), his final defeat at Waterloo (June 18), and the restoration of King Louis XVIII (June 28)
Duke of Wellington British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
Prince Klemens von Metternich Austrian statesman and diplomat; he was the Austrian representative at the Congress of Vienna
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand French statesman and diplomat; he was one of the negotiators at the Congress of Vienna. He represented France on behalf of Louis XVIII
indemnity compensation that is paid to a nation for the damage inflicted upon it in a war
reactionary an extremist who not only opposes change but also wants to undo certain changes
sans culottes ¨without breeches¨; a radical group of shopkeepers and wage earners during the French Revolution who wanted a larger voice in government and an end to food shortages
Created by: brandoncoppinger
 

 



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