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Social Studies Test

Reconstruction, Guilded Age, and Industrialization

Alexander Graham Bell Scottish-born scientist who is best known for the working telephone and the Bell Telephone Company. The telephone is important because it could send multiple inventions at one time.
Andrew Carnegie An immigrant from Scotland who founded the Carnegie Steel Company. He eventually became a philanthropist and gave away millions of dollars.
Henry Bessemer An English inventor who invented the Bessemer process--inexpensive way to mass produce steel.
John D. Rockefeller The founder of standard oil who ended becoming the richest man in history. He created an oil monopoly through horizontal integration.
Thomas Edison He was an American inventor who is know for the first commercially-practical lightbulb and the telegraph.
J.P. Morgan He was a banker and a financier who bought Carnegie Steel to make US Steel. He bailed out the US government when they were in debt, and he founded GE.
Cornelius Vanderbilt He controlled shipping and railroads, and he used vertical integration to control every part of the shipping industry.
Chinese Exclusion Act A law in 1882 which banned Chinese immigration to the US for 10 years.
How did cities change in the 19th century? There was a lot of urbanization, so the housing was quick and poorly constructed. Lots of people lived in the city, and many people were very poor.
Vertical Integration Buying all the companies and resources related to your business. It keeps cost low, ensures that you have your needed goods, and makes it easy to move goods around. It also creates very large corporations and uses ruthless business tactics. Apple is one.
Horizontal Integration Buying up all of the competition. It keeps profits high and eliminates the competition, It also creates large corporations and uses ruthless business tactics. Heinz is one.
Skyscrapers Very tall buildings made of steel that were put in big cities. It was a very new concept during the Industrial Age.
Plessy vs. Ferguson A Supreme Court Case that legalized separate but equal policies for our nation.
Radical Republicans They wanted equal policies in America.
13th Amendment It abolished slavery and gave congress the power to enforce abolition through legislation. It is important because southerners could no longer own slaves, and it started a lot of change in our nation.
14th Amendment It gives all people born in America citizenship. It is important because it pushes for equality.
15th Amendment It gives equal voting rights to all men disregarding race. It is important because African Americans can have a say in their government and who will represent them.
Compromise of 1877 President Hayes is elected after democrats decide not to dispute voting results as long as northern troops leave the south. It ends the age of reconstruction.
Sharecropping Land-owners would pay workers very little wage for them to farm the land. It was mostly in the south and almost exactly like slavery.
Black Codes Laws passed by southern states to constrict the freedom of African Americans during the mid-1860s.
Freedmen's Bureau A government bureau that was set up to help freed slaves find jobs, schooling, and housing.
Scalawags They were southerners who supported the union.
Carpetbaggers They were northerners who travelled to the south to make a profit off the people living there by charging high prices for things that they needed.
KKK A hate group that terrorized African Americans and anyone associated with them.
Reconstruction The time after the Civil War when America was changing and rebuilding.
How did states restrict the rights of African Americans? States used black codes that took away their freedoms.
Capitalism A system where a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit.
Socialism A system where a country's trade and industry are controlled by the government.
Transcontinental Railroad A railroad line that ran from New York to California made by the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad companies. It made shipping people and goods much more safe and efficient.
Entrepreneur A person who starts their own business by taking on many financial risks.
Robber Barron A name given to those who use ruthless business tactics to gain more money from customers. They pay very low wages, create monopolies, and raise prices.
Philanthropist A person who helps others by donating large sums of money to places. One example is Andrew Carnegie.
Boss Tweed A corruption in politics run by Tammany Hall (they controlled the local government in New York City).
Businesses were booming, and America was having a lot of economic growth. It is called the Gilded Age as a symbol that everything was covered in gold because people were getting rich.
Monopoly A business that gains control of an industry by eliminating other competitors; it is used in horizontal integration.
Ellis Island The New York Harbor immigration station for European immigrants.
Angel Island The San Francisco Bay immigration station for Asian immigrants.
Melting Pot A place where cultures blend.
The Jungle Upton Sinclair's novel that exposed the horrible conditions of meat markets.
Created by: ABerl
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