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ch.16

vocab

QuestionAnswer
caravel a small, fast Spanish or Portuguese sailing ship of the 15th–17th centuries.
Henry the navigator was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
vasco da Gama was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea. His initial voyage to India was the first to link Europe and Asia by an ocean route, connecting the Atlantic and the Indian oceans and therefore, the West and the Orient.
Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain.
Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
circumnavigate is the complete navigation around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body. The first circumnavigation of Earth was the Magellan-Elcano expedition, which sailed from Seville, Spain in 1519 and returned in 1522,
sir Francis drake was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.
Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States
encomienda was a Spanish labor system. It rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people. It was first established in Spain following the Christian conquest of Muslim territories.
hernan cortes was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
conquistador a conqueror, especially one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
fransico pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who led the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire. He captured and killed Incan emperor Atahualpa, and claimed the lands for Spain.
Atahualpa the last Inca Emperor. After defeating his brother, Atahualpa became very briefly the last Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire before the Spanish conquest.
viceroys a ruler exercising authority in a colony on behalf of a sovereign.
Bartolome DE Las casas was a 16th-century Spanish colonist who acted as a historian and social reformer before becoming a Dominican friar. He was appointed as the first president Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians".
treaty of tordesilla signed at Tordesillas in Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands,
plantations is the large-scale estate meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, sisal, oil seeds, oil palms, rubber trees, and fruits.
triangular trade trade in the 18th and 19th centuries that involved shipping goods from Britain to West Africa to be exchanged for slaves, slaves being shipped to the Indies and exchanged for sugar, rum, and other commodities which were in turn shipped back to Britain.
middle passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were forcibly transported to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.
Olaudah Equiano known in his lifetime as Gustavus Vassa, was a writer and abolitionist from the Igbo region of what is today southeastern Nigeria according to his memoir, or from South Carolina according to other sources.
african diaspora the mass dispersion of peoples from Africa during the Transatlantic Slave Trades, from the 1500s to the 1800s. This Diaspora took millions of people from Western and Central Africa to different regions throughout the Americas and the Caribbean.
Columbia exchange named for Christopher Columbus, was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, diseases, and ideas between the Americas, West Africa, and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries.
mercantilism the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism
balance of trade the difference in value between a country's imports and exports.
subsides go down to a lower or the normal level.
capitalism an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
joint-stock companies is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders. Each shareholder owns company stock in proportion.
Created by: brandoncoppinger
 

 



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