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Spring 19 Benchmark

Why did Spain explore the New World? To find valuable resources like GOLD and to convert natives to Christianity.
Why did the French explore the New World? To trade with natives for goods like FUR.
What were the economic activities of NEW ENGLAND? Lumbering, fishing, ship building, and trade (natural harbors)
What was the Proclamation of 1763? Law forbid colonists from moving west of the APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS, angered colonists.
What acts did Britain pass on the colonies that angered the colonists Sugar Act, Stamp Act, and Intolerable Acts. Colonists boycotted, protested, and had the Boston Tea Party
What was the Northwest Ordinance? Law established a way for admitting new states to the US, territories govern themselves. (Created in the Articles of Confederation)
What was a Federalist? A person that supported ratifying (approving) the Constitution. Believed it created new government that was powerful but not too powerful.
Who were famous Federalists? Alexander Hamilton and James Madison
What was an Anti-Federalist? Person against the Constitution, believed it created a new government that was too strong and needed a Bill of Rights
Who were famous Anti-Federalists? Patrick Henry, George Mason
What rights do the 1st Amendment protect? Rights to free speech, religion, press, petition, assembly
What is the 8th Amendment? Freedom from cruel or unusual punishment
What is the 10th Amendment? Right not given to the federal government are rights of the STATES.
What was the Whiskey Rebellion? Washington taxed whiskey to raise money for the US, but farmers began to riot. Washington used military force to stop it.
What was the Democratic-Republican Party? Led by Thomas Jefferson, wanted less Federal government power, no national bank, and economy should be based on agriculture.
What did Washington's Farewell Address WARN the US about? Making political parties. Don't get involved with other country's political affairs/problems.
What did Marbury v. Madison establish? Established Judicial Review which gave Supreme Court power to declare laws unconstitutional.
What was the Nullification Crisis? Problem over if the state of South Carolina had the right to nullify (overturn) a Federal law, argument over states' rights vs. federal rights.
What was the effect of INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS? Made manufacturing more efficient to make things, led to mass production and cheaper prices.
What is URBANIZATION? People move from rural farm areas to cities to work in factories, city population exploded
Why did the Irish immigrate to America? The potato famine in Ireland caused many to starve to death, so many Irish left
What was the Mexican Cession? Land US acquired after US-Mexican War as stated in the Treaty Guadalupe Hidalgo.
What was an abolitionist? People who worked to end slavery, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Frederick Douglas
What was the Compromise of 1850 Agreement between North and South over the issue of slavery, California becomes a Free State but a strict Fugitive Slave Law is passed
What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act? Agreement that attempted to solve slavery issue, violence erupted as a result of law.
What was important about the Appomattox Court House? Confederacy surrenders to Union, ending the Civil War, located in Virginia.
What was the Freedman's Bureau? Worked to help freed slaves get an education, clothing, food, and jobs.
What was the 13th amendment? Abolished slavery, African Americans were free to move wherever they wanted.
What was the Transcontinental Railroad? Ran from East Coast to West Coast, encouraged settlement out West, opened new markets to sell goods, and prices of goods decreased.
What year did we acquire Florida? In 1819
Why did the writers of the Articles of Confederation make the government WEAK? They feared a strong government that may lead to a powerful king.
Why did Britain pass TAX ACTS on the colony? To help get money back from the costly French and Indian War.
What was an effect of the Cotton Gin? The spread of slavery increased in the South and parts in the West
What was impressment? British kidnapping sailors to work on their ships. One of the causes of the War of 1812.
What was the Hudson River School Group of artists that began painting nature landscapes in America.
Who settled in New England? Puritans, to practice their religion freely.
What did Andrew Jackson do when the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokees? He ignored the ruling and sent troops to clear natives off their lands.
What job did the Chinese Immigrants mostly do? Build railroad tracks in the West.
Who was Susan B. Anthony? A leader in Women's Suffrage (voting rights).
Created by: MrJamesIMMS