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Prax 0014 world hist

World history for social studies section of praxis II test 0014

QuestionAnswer
prehistory period a time of unwritten records. knowledge from this time and the gains that were made are only evident through the existence of continued achievements
accomplishments of early civilizations basic achievements-wheel, alphabet, math, time measurements; art and architecture, alphabetic writing, defined religion, commonality and diversity (separate geographically and culturally but all developed trade, writing, cities)
5 early civilizations Neolithic Revolution (10,000 BCE), Civilization (6,000-3,500 BCE), Tigris-Euphrates Civilization (3.500 BCE), Egyptian Civilization (3,000 BCE), Indian and Chinese River Valley Civilization (2,500 BCE)
Neolithic Revolution 10,000 BCE - developed agricultural societies; rise in economic, political and social organizations; began in Middle East and spread into India, North Africa and Europe; gave humans the ability to settle permanently
Civilization 6,000-3,500 BCE - developed alongside major rivers for agricultural production "river-valley"; created basic set of tools; introduced writing, mathematics and politics
Tigris-Euphrates Civilization 3,500 BCE-orig. in valley of Tigris&Euphrates rivs in Mesopotamia;started w/o model(Sumerian people);created cuneiform (earliest writing);estab polit system w/ king and city states;fertilizer;silver to trade;dev law courts, property rights, legal system
Egyptian Civilization 3,000 BCE - emerged along Nile; modeled trade on Mesopotamia; built pyramid and sphinx; math achievements; ruled by Pharoahs; established effective government, defense, money and transportation systems; centralized community to meed needs of citizens
Indian and Chinese River Valley Civilizations 2,500 BCE-Indus river valley;prospered in urban civilizations;traded w/ mesopotamia;dev well-defined alphabet and artistic forms;irrigation systems;advanced engineering and architectural tech; massive tombs and palaces; invaded&destroyed by Indo-Europeans
Three Classical civilizations China (1029 BCE), Greece and Rome (800 BCE), India (600 BCE)
accomplishments of classical civilizations expanded trade and provided other influences to areas outside their borders; re-evaluated/restructured institutions upon the decline&fall of empires or rules, policies&values;incr agric opps;extended territories;integrated the people&soc (social cohesion)
Civilization of China 1029 BCE - longest lasting and one of most influential civs; established model for global trade; three dynastic cycles: Zhou, Qin, Han;
Political accomplishments of China Civ began bureaucracy training; established a system of tax collection; promoted mandatory labor services
Religion and cultural accomplishments of China Civ Confucianism&Daoism;personal ethics of self-control,humility,respect;harmony in nature;art and craftmanship;geometrical and decorative arts;developed accurate calenders;studied math of music;studied sci for practical uses
economy and society accomplishments of china civ 3 main social groups (upper class, laboring peasants, unskilled laborers);excelled in technologies;promoted trade as essential;encouraged tight knit family unit;instilled patriarchical society (women subordinate to men) and demanded arranged marriages
Civilization of Greece and Rome 800 BCE - both extremely powerful throughout the world and created a rise in city-states. Greeks set up large expanding colonial and trading systems or webs. Rome gained territory&power by acquiring lesser devel cultures, causing it to grow to an empire
political accomplishments of Greece/Rome emphasized aristocratic rule but democratic elements also present; democracy in Greece; promoted intense loyalty to state; created uniform legal principles
religion and cultural accomplishments of Greece/Rome moderation and balance (Aristotle&Cirero);conventional wisdom using rational inquiry (Socrates); excelled in sculpture, architecture and plays (Greeks); promoted geometry and anatomy (Greeks); made the greatest contribution to science-engineering (Romans)
economy and society accomplishments of Greece/Rome dev systems for agriculture (farming); participated in extensive trade by using a structure of slavery; promoted unified family structure; instilled a patriarchal community although women could own property
Civilization of India 600 BCE - shaped by topography; agric regions along Ganges&Indus Rivers. Rule sporadic&divided into widespread empires (invaders) to small kingdoms-Mauryn and Gupta. Advanced in culture and economics. Extensive trade; budism became world religion
political accomplishments of India civ practiced diversity and regionalism (still today); established a caste system; utilized a variety of languages
religion and cultural accomplishments of India civ Hinduism and Buddism; taught religion, medicine and architecture in universities; excelled in sci and math; developed concept of zero, arabic numbers and decimal system; created lively and colorful art
economy and society accomplishments of India civ extablished extensive internal and external successful trade practices; promoted patriarchal society (dominance over woman); emphasized family, group or gov. not individuals
Non-European Civilizations Mayans, Mongolians, Muslim/Islam, Africa, Inca
Mayan civilization astronomy and mathematics, elaborate written language system, architecture and art
Mongolian civilization nomadic society with law code unification, strong military, but transmitted diseases across continents
Muslim/Islam civilization Islamic religion, chemistry advance, high-quality maps, influential arts and sciences
Africa civilization stateless societies
Inca civilization Artistic pottery and clothing, metallurgy, architecture, irrigation, road systems, supreme military organization, and agriculture
Created by: allie424
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