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Unit 11

Black Tuesday A name given to October 29, 1929, when stock prices fell sharply
Speculation An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit
Dow Jones Industrial Average A measure based on the prices of the stocks of 30 large companies, widely used as a barometer of the stock market’s health
Hawley-Smoot Tariff A law, enacted in 1930, that established the highest protective tariff in U.S. history, worsening the depression in America and abroad
Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd President of the United States --- elected four times --- instituted New Deal to counter the Great Depression and led country during World War II (1882-1945)
Credit An arrangement in which a buyer pays later for a purchase, often on an installment plan with interest charges.
Soup kitchens A place where free or low cost food is served to the needy
Dust Bowl The region, including Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico, that was made worthless for farming by drought and dust storms during the 1930s
Boulder Dam A dam on the Colorado River—now called Hoover Dam—that was built during the Great Depression as part of a public-works program intended to stimulate business and provide jobs
Bonus Army A group of World War I veterans and their families who marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of a bonus they had been promised for military service
Hoovervilles A shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s
Fireside Chats One of a series of radio broadcasts made by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to the nation, beginning in 1933
New Deal President Franklin Roosevelt’s program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression, focusing on relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) An agency, established as part of the New Deal, that put young unemployed men to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in erosion-control and flood-control projects
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) A law enacted in 1933 to raise crop prices by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of their land unplanted, thus lowering production
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) A law enacted in 1933 to establish codes of fair practice for industries and to promote industrial growth
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) An agency created in 1933 to insure individuals’ bank accounts, protecting people against losses due to bank failures
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) A federal corporation established in 1933 to construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity as well as to prevent floods
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) An agency, created in 1934, that monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bond
Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) A government-sponsored corporation created as part of the New Deal
Francis Perkins An American sociologist and workers-rights advocate who served as the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945 --- the longest serving in that position --- the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet
Charles Coughlin A Roman Catholic priest who became a national celebrity during the 1930s by hosting a popular radio broadcast
Huey P. Long An American politician who served as the 40th governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and was a member of the United States Senate from 1932 until his assassination in 1935
Works Progress Administration (WPA) An agency, established as part of the Second New Deal, that provided the unemployed with jobs in construction, garment making, teaching, the arts, and other fields
Wagner Act A law—also known as the National Labor Relations Act—enacted in 1935 to protect workers’ rights after the Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional
National Labor Relations Board An agency created in 1935 to prevent unfair labor practices and to mediate disputes between workers and management
Fair Labor Standards Act A United States labor law that creates the right to a minimum wage, and "time-and-a-half" overtime pay when people work over forty hours a week
Social Security Act A law enacted in 1935 to provide aid to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and families with dependent children
Deficit Spending A government’s spending of more money than it receives in revenue
Eleanor Roosevelt Wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights
Black Cabinet The informal term for a group of African Americans who served as public policy advisors to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor Roosevelt in his 1933-45 terms in office
Created by: sarah23me1