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Ch 1,2 POL Terms
|Ideologue or ideologues are people who try to persuade others to their political ideology. They try to reach as many people as possible, in order to become the most powerful political force.
|Scientific theories focus only on the science of the theory, it doesn't take into account human interaction. Where as political ideologies take into account human interaction, thus making scientific theories empirical in nature.
|After you get done with a job interview it's normal to look your boss in the eye and shake his hand. The normative has to do with normal things you do in life, unlike scientific ideas, political ideas take into account the normative.
|Why is freedom an essentially contested concept?
|People within a society have freedoms, whether it's the freedom to own a slave or the freedom to buy a gun wherever. Freedom is defined an described in so many ways one can't get the majority of the world to agree making it essentially contested concept.
|Triadic Model of Freedom
|Agent Obstacle Goal, the agent or person must overcome some obstacle within his to life to acquire his goal. The agent can also be groups, obstacles can be different things one example; crime. They all work together to achieve a certain goal, however.
|This can be in obstacle within the the triadic model of freedom, in a communist sense the obstacle being that false consciousness, where the agent isn't allowed to think of himself as an individual. They don't want to believe it, but it's there.
|I use to think of a Revolution I would see a big bloody battle, but see it now as a society wanting their independence, whenever someone has direct control over another, it almost inevitable that a lot of these people become revolutionary minded.
|Nationalism can be directly associated with nationality, in a sense that people born in a certain nation or country have a sense of pride, or at-least recognize their country. Nationalism is dangerous as we see with Hitlers regime.
|The nation-state are the political functions used when governing members within a society. Communism puts the nation-state as the individual creating a false conscious that is intermingled though out society.
|The political idea in a society, where there are no political ideas, no political leaders, no governing body, no authoritarian figures-other than your family. it requires people to live life in peace and have a genuine respect for one another.
|Why is Democracy an essentially contested concept?
|Democracy is agree'd upon that members within a society should get to live freely and are granted certain right and liberties. The part where it becomes essentially contested is when people argue how to achieve it, or if they should get it.
|Aristotle 6 part regimes classification
|Brilliant philosopher Aristotle thought about how all regimes created classifications among the people. He created a model to show people which regimes, he thought, valued those of the public or the self. Claiming them either to be perverted, or true.
|What mixed government allows people to do, is choose which government they would like to be apart of, all while being apart of the same nation. The United States has a mixed government because not all states are governed the same.
|What the constitution does is grants people the right to certain liberties granted they abide the law. It also defines the guid lines the States laws must follow, as well as limiting the Federal government allowing them to not become too powerful.
|Aristotle analysis of Democracy?
|Aristotle saw that democracy was perverted because he didn't imagine that the working class can overthrow the upperclass. He figured that if democracy was agree'd upon then it was the rich people who agreed upon it, and who wants to lose power.
|Roman Republic's mixed government
|Rome had a mixed government because it used three people to represent them. they had a lot of power in policy creation, however; so be it the senate too had exponential power. They used counsels rather then the usual monarch to prescribe policy
|The idea that everyone must due their civic duty including, acquiring enough knowledge to understand policy that effects them directly and embraces the idea, 'learn to govern or learn to be governed'.
|Machiavelli view of a republic
|Machiavelli see's the republic as a mixed gov't in which no single class rules, rather all classes share power. they must keep people in check, by not allowing others to gain mass amounts of power. He tells everyone to learn their civic duties.
|Liberalism within the constitution
|Within the constitution lies the Bill of Rights, this allows for individual rights granted to anyone with citizenship. Liberalism stresses the rights of the individual, giving the constitution a sense of liberalism.
|Republican features of the U.S. Constitution
|John Adams once told of how he thought the only good part of a republic is that it can be defined as an empire of laws rather than an empire of men. Insinuating that every individual must abide the law or suffer the consequences.
|Alexis De Tocqueville on the tyranny of the majority
|Tocqueville thought that the mob doesn't allow people, who have brilliant ideas, to speak out for fear of disapproval. He fears the pressure of the general opinion and way of life wont allow society to evolve and allows for mediocrity.
|Early Christians view on democracy
|Early on many Christians agree'd that all were equal in the eyes of god, but they didn't accept democracy because they didn't believe in politics. Many believed life on Earth was in preparation for heaven claiming world matters were of no significance.
|Liberal view of freedom
|The agent is the individual, and the obstacle are laws, customs, or conditions that block individual choice. The goal is for people to live however the want
|Liberal democracy stresses the rights of the individual. Things that deprive people of these liberties are obstacles. It also limits the majority rule
|Social democracy argues that the rich have great control over the poor in many public institutions. They argue that things can't be fair when there are great inequalities in wealth.
|The peoples democracy
|What the people democracy argues is that the power should reside, for the most part, with the common people. In order to suppress the rich, or bourgeois from exploiting the proletariat or the common people.