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Chapter 10

TermDefinition
Adolescent fertility rate The number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19
Cooperative store A member-owned, member-governed business that operates for the benefit of its members according to common principles agreed upon by the international cooperative community
Developed country A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
Developing country A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of development
Development A process of improvement in the conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
Fair trade An alternative to international trade that provides greater equity to workers, small businesses, and consumers, focusing primarily on products exported from developing countries to developed countries
Female labor force participation rate The percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home
Foreign direct investment (FDI) Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country
Gender-related Development Index (GDI) An indicator constructed by the U.N. to measure the gender gap in the level of achievement in terms of income, education, and life expectancy
Gender Inequality Index (GII) An indicator constructed by the U.N. to measure the extent of each country's gender inequality in terms of reproductive health, empowerment, and the labor market
Gross domestic product (GDP) The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, not accounting for money that leaves and enters the country
Gross national income (GNI) The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country a year , including money that leaves and enters the country
Human Development Index (HDI) An indicator constructed by the U.N. to measure the level of development for a country through a combination of income, education, and life expectancy
Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) A modification of the HDI to account for inequality
Literacy rate The percentage of a country's people who can read and write
Maternal mortality rate The number of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births
Microfinance Provision of small loans and financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries
Millennium Development Goals Eight goals adopted by the U.N. in 2002 to reduce disparities between developed and developing countries by 2015
Primary sector The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth, generally through agriculture
Productivity The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
Pupil/teacher ratio The number of enrolled students divided by the number of teachers
Purchasing power parity (PPP) The amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country
Secondary sector The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
Structural adjustment power Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions that encourage international trade
Sustainable Development goals Seventeen goals adopted by the U.N. in 2015 to reduce disparities between developed and developing countries by 2030
Tertiary sector The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communication, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment
Value added The gross value of a product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
Created by: Yedani