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Chapter 9

TermDefinition
Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
Agricultural revolution The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
Aquaculture (aquafarming) The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions
Cereal grain A grass that yields grain for food
Commercial agriculture Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale of the farm
Crop Any plant gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season
Crop rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil
Dairy farm A form of commercial agriculture that specializes in the production of milk and other dairy products
Desertification Degradation on land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions such as excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting, Also known as semiarid land degradation
Dietary energy consumption The amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in kilocalories
Double cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same field
Fishing The capture of wild fish and other seafood living in the waters
Food security Physical, social, and economic acces at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life
Genetically modified organism (GMO) A living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology
Grain Seed of a cereal grain
Green revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
Horticulture The growing of fruits, vegetables and flowers
Intensive subsistence agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture characteristics of Asia's major population concentrations in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Milkshed The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
Mixed crop and livestock farming Commercial farming characterized by integration of crops and livestock; most of the crops are fed to animals rather than consumed directly by humans
No tillage A farming practice that leaves all of the soil undisturbed and the entire residue of the previous year's harvest left untouched on the fields
Overfishing Capturing fish faster than they can reproduce
Paddy The Malay word for wet rice, increasingly used to describe a flooded field
Pastoral nomadism A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
Plantation A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
Prime agricultural land The most productive farmland
Ranching A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
Ridge tillage A system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
Sawah A flooded field for growing rice
Shifting cultivation A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
Slash-and-burn agriculture Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning debris
Subsistence agriculture Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Swidden A patch of land cleared for plantating through slashing and burning
Transhumance The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Truck farming Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named for the Middle English word truck, meaning "barter" or "exchange of commodities"
Undernourishment Dietary energy consumption that is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity
Wet rice Rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth
Created by: Yedani