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social institutions it's the various organised social arrangements which are found in all societies
social structure refers to the social institutions and social relationships that form the building blocks of society
objectivity the absence of bias or preconceived ideas, it implies that we can look at things as they really are without our opinions or values getting in the way
value freedom means sociologists should try not to let their prejudices and beliefs influence the way they carry out their research and interpret evidence
socialization the process whereby people learn the attitudes, values and actions appropriate for individuals as members of a particular culture
culture everything learned and shared by a society or group of people and transmitted from generation to generation through socialization
identity the individuals sense of self which is influenced by socialization and interactions with others
roles are the patterns of behaviour which are expected from individuals in society
role models are peoples patterns of behaviour which others copy and model their own behaviour on
role conflict difficulties that occur when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person
values are beliefs about what is right or wrong in a particular society which set standards that should be maintained
laws are official legal rules that are formally enforced and involve legal punishment if broken
norms are social rules that define the correct and acceptable behaviour in a society or social group which people should conform to
customs are norms which have lasted from a long time and have become a part of societies tradition
social control the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behaviour in any society
deviance is the failure to conform to social norms
sanctions penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm
a social class is a group of people who share a similar economic situation which was used by max weber
income is a flow of money which people obtain from work from their investments or from the state
wealth is property in the form of assets which can be sold and turned into the cash for the benefit of the owner
life chances are the chances of obtaining things that are classed as desirable as well as avoiding those that are defined as undesirable in society
social mobility movements of individuals or groups up or down the social hierarchy from one social class to another
the upper class consists of those who are the main owners of societies wealth
the middle class consists of those in non manual work jobs that are usually in an office
the working class consists of those working in manual jobs like factory or labouring work
the underclass is made up of those who are cut off or excluded from the rest of society
status can refer to the role someone holds in society or the amount of social importance a person has in the eyes of other members in a group or society
ascribed status is status given by birth or family background which usually cannot be changed by individuals
achieved status is status that is achieved by an individuals own efforts or talents
ethnicity refers to the shared culture of a social group which gives its members a common identity in some ways different from that of other social groups
a minority ethnic group is a social group which shares a cultural identity which is different from that of the majority population of a society
gender refers to the culturally created differences between men and women which are learnt through socialisation
sex refers to the biological differences between men and women as opposed to culturally created gender differences
a sociological perspective involves a set of theories which influences what is looked at when studying society
structuralism is a perspective that is concerned with the overall structure of society and sees individual behaviour being moulded by social institutions
a macro approach focuses on the large scale structure of society as a whole rather than on individuals
functionalism is a sociological perspective that sees society as being made up of parts which work together to maintain society as an integrated whole
functional prerequisites are the basic needs that must be met if society is to survive
value consensus is a general agreement around the main values and norms of any society
marxism is a structural theory of society which sees society divided by conflict between two main opposing classes due to private ownership of the means of production
the means of production are the key resources necessary for producing societies goods
the relations of production are the forms of relationship between the people involved in production and those who control production so cooperation or private ownership and control
ideology is a set of ideas values and beliefs that represent the outlook and justifies the interests of a social group
surplus value is the extra value added by workers to the products they produce which after allowing for wages goes to the employer as profit
the bourgeoisie is the class that is made up of the owners of the means of production in industrial societies whose primary goal is to make a profit
the proletariat is the social class of workers who have to work for wages as they do not own the means of production
labour power refers to a persons capacity to work people sell their labour power to an employer and receives wages in return
class conflict is the conflict that arises between different social classes
the ruling class is the social class who own the means of production and whose power over the economy gives them power over all parts of society
the dominant ideology is the set of ideas and beliefs of the most powerful groups in society which influences the ideas of the rest of society
false consciousness is a failure by members of a social class to recognize their real interests
class consciousness is an awareness in members of a social class of their real interests
communism refers to an equal society without social classes or class conflict where the means of production belong to everyone
social action theories are the same as interpretivist theories
interpretivist theories emphasize the creative action people can take instead of seeing themselves as passive victims of social forces outside of them
determinism is the idea that peoples behaviour is moulded by their social surroundings and that they have little free will choice or control over how they behave
a micro approach focuses on small groups or individuals rather than on the structure of society as a whole
symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective which is concerned with understanding human behaviour in face to face situations
labelling the process of attaching a definition or meaning to an individual or group
structuration is an approach between structuralism and social action theory that suggests that even though people are constrained by social institutions they are still able to have choice and even support or change the institutions
feminism a sociological perspective and political movement that focuses on womens oppression and the struggle to end it
marxist feminism emphasises the way in which women are doubly exploited as workers and women
radical feminism focuses on the problems caused by men and male domination under patriarchy
patriarchy is a system in which males dominate in every area of society
liberal feminism focuses on measures to ensure that women have equal opportunities with men in society
new right stresses individual freedom, self-help and self-reliance
the new right believe in the reduction of the states power and spending
the new right like the idea of a free market and allowing free competition between private companies, schools and other institutions
postmodernism stresses that society is changing rapidly and constantly leading to chaos, uncertainty and risk
postmodernism believe that society is fragmented into many different groups, interests and lifestyles
a metanarrative is a broad all embracing theory or explanation for how societies operate
a social problem is something that is seen as being harmful to society in some way and needs something doing to sort it out
a sociological problem is any social issue that needs explaining
social policy refers to packages of plans and actions adopted by national and local government to solve social problems or achieve other goals that are seen as important
Created by: jxkxx



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