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Charlemagne King of the Franks; he united much of France , Germany and northern Italy in one Frankish empire; crowned Emperor of the Roman people in 800.
Papal States territories in central Italy controlled by the pope.
counts title of nobility; in Charlemagne's empire, chosen officials who ruled parts of the empire in his name.
navagation the guidance of ships from place to place.
sagas long stories, written about great Icelandic heroes and events.
Leif Eriksson Norwegian explorer; he led a group of Vikings to North America and settled on the eastern shore of modern-day Canada.
knights in medieval Europe, nobles who were members of a lord's heavily armoured cavalry.
fief a grant of land from a lord to a vassal.
vassal in medieval Europe, a person granted land from a lord in return for services.
feudal system a political system based on the granting of land in exchange for loyalty, military assistance, and other services
fealty the loyalty owed by a vassal to his feudal lord.
manorial system an economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors.
serfs peasants who were legally bound to their lord's land.
Alfred the Great king of Wessex; he defeated Danish invaders and united Anglo-Saxon England under his control. He complied a code of laws and promoted learning.
William the Conqueror king of England ; he was a powerful French noble who conquered England and brought feudalism to England.
Domesday Book the written record of English land owners and their property made by order of William the Conqueror.
Eleanor of Aquitaine queen of France and England; she was one of the most powerful women in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Magna Carta a charter agreed to by King John of England that granted nobles certain rights and restricted the king's powers.
Parliament the governing body of England.
Hugh Capet King of France; elected by Frankish nobles to succeed King Louis V, he founded the Capetian dynasty, which ruled France for 300 years.
Otto the Great king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor; he defeated the Magyar army, which ended the Magyar raids in the mid-900s.
Requista the effort of Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, occurring between the 1100s and 1492
piety devotion to one's religion.
pontificate papal term in office.
Pope Gregory VII Roman Catholic pope; his assertion of church power to appoint bishops led him into conflict with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, who claimed the powers fr himself. Gregory excommunicated Henry, who relented.
Henry IV king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor; he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII over bishop appointments; he acknowledged the Pope's authority and was readmitted to the church.
Created by: brandoncoppinger



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